Clinical Practice

Pain management in labour and childbirth: Going back to basics

As rates of anxiety, tocophobia and post-traumatic stress syndrome increase, there is a need for health professionals to reflect, review and rethink how women could be better prepared for labour and...

Perineal trauma: A women's health and wellbeing issue

Perineal trauma and its consequences are important areas for women's health and wellbeing. Many women throughout the world will sustain some degree of perineal and vaginal injury during childbirth....

Epilepsy in pregnancy: The role of the midwife in risk management

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease to be found during pregnancy, and has a significant risk of morbidity and mortality to the woman and the developing fetus (Borgelt et al, 2016; Knight...

Overcoming the barriers of vitamin D in pregnancy: A midwifery public health perspective

Guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2008, 2017a; 2017b) and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) (2014a) recommends vitamin D...

Gestational diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder in which insulin production or action is insufficient, resulting in hyperglycaemia Insulin is produced in pancreatic beta (b) cells and is required for the...

Caring for women with thyroid disorders in pregnancy

Thyroid disorders are prevalent in women of childbearing age and may therefore present during pregnancy Awareness of the implications of thyroid disorders in pregnancy is therefore essential to ensure...

Asthma in pregnancy: Physiology, management and recommendations for midwives

Midwives will be aware that pregnant women are reflective of the society in which they live This incudes the prevalence of medical conditions; therefore, it is useful to set the context for asthma as...

Moxibustion: An alternative option for breech presentation

The safest mode of birth for a breech-presenting fetus has been a topic for debate among researchers and clinicians for decades (Walker, 2012; Evans, 2013; Odent, 2013; Homer et al, 2015) Women with a...

Bilirubin in the newborn: Physiology and pathophysiology

Jaundice in the newborn is usually normal. It is caused by the breakdown of red blood cells, which, as a result of newborn transitional physiology, results in the build-up of bilirubin in the infant's...

Pre-eclampsia: Pathophysiology, screening and prophylaxis

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific, multisystem disorder that affects 3-5% of all pregnancies (Phillips and Boyd, 2016; Story and Chappell, 2017) It can affect many organs, including the kidneys,...

Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome during pregnancy, birth and beyond

The Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS) are a group of multisystemic, inherited conditions that affect connective tissue (Malfait et al, 2017)

Postpartum haemorrhage: Aetiology and intervention

Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide (Knight and Paterson-Brown, 2017) It accounts for one-quarter of all maternal deaths and 100 000 deaths every...

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