References

Abraham-Smith K Experiences of women who disclose symptoms of postnatal depression. 2015;

Austin W, McGinn NC, Sasmilch C Internal standards revisited: Effects of social comparison and expectancies on judgments of fairness and satisfaction. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1980; 16:426-41

Beck CT A meta-analysis of predictors of postpartum depression. Nurs Res. 1996; 45:(5)297-303

Beck CT Postpartum depression: It isn't just the blues. Am J Nurs. 2006; 106:(5)40-50

Boath EH, Pryce AJ, Cox JL Postnatal depression: The impact on the family. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2007; 16:199-203

Leicester: British Psychological Society; 2010

Brugha TS, Sharp HM, Cooper SA The Leicester 500 Project Social Support and the development of postnatal depressive symptoms, a prospective cohort survey. Psychol Med. 1998; 28:63-79

Caramlau I, Barlow J, Sembi S, McKenzie-McHarg K, McCabe CJ Mums 4 Mums: Structured telephone peer-support for women experiencing postnatal depression. Pilot and exploratory RCT of its clinical and cost effectiveness. Trials. 2011; 12 https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-12-88

Chaudoir SR, Fisher JD The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision-making and post-disclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychol Bull. 2010; 136:(2)236-56

Cooper P, Murray L Course and recurrence of postnatal depression. Evidence for the specificity of the diagnostic concept. Br J Psychiatry. 1995; 166:191-5

Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry. 1987; 150:782-6

Coyle B, Adams C The Edinburgh Postnatal depression Scale: Guidelines for its use as a part of a maternal mood assessment. Community Pract. 2002; 75

Day EH Applying the Listening to Women II results in Lamaze class. J Perinat Educ. 2007; 16:(4)52-4

Dennis CL The effect of peer support on postpartum depression: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Can J Psychiatry. 2003; 48:(2)115-24

Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: Multisite randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009; 338

Edwards E, Timmons S A qualitative study of stigma among women suffering from postnatal illness. J Ment Health. 2005; 14:(5)471-81

Fisher J, Hammarberg K, Baker G Assisted conception is a risk factor for postnatal mood disturbance and early parenting difficulties. Fertil Steril. 2005; 84:(2)426-30

Hendrick V Treatment of postnatal depression: Effective interventions are available but the condition remains under-diagnosed. Br Med J. 2003; 327:(7422)1003-5

Heneghan AM, Mercer M, DeLeone NS Will women discuss parenting stress and depressive symptoms with their child's paediatrician?. Paediatrics. 2004; 113:460-7

Jardri R, Maron M Why and how to improve postnatal depression screening in the immediate post-partum?. Clin Eff Nurs. 2006; 9S2:e238-41

Jonzon E, Lindblad F Adult female victims of child sexual abuse: Multitype maltreatment and disclosure characteristics related to subjective health. J Interpers Violence. 2005; 20:651-6

Kennedy HP, Beck CT, Driscoll JW A light in the fog: Caring for women with postpartum depression. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2002; 47:(5)318-30

Kruglanski AW, Mayseless O Classic and current social comparison research: Expanding the perspective. Psychol Bull. 1990; 108:(2)195-208

Lauer-Williams J Postpartum depression: A phenomenological exploration of the woman's experience. Diss Abstr Int. 2001; 62:(4-B)

Lepore SJ, Fernandez-Berrocal P, Ragan J, Ramos N It's not that bad: Social challenges to emotional disclosure enhance adjustment to stress. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2004; 17:(4)341-61

McIntosh J Postpartum depression: Women's help-seeking behaviour and perceptions of cause. J Adv Nurs. 1993; 18:(2)178-84

Meighan M, Davies MW, Thomas SP, Droppleman PG Living with postpartum depression: The father's experience. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 1999; 24:(4)202-8

Menaghann EG Social stress and individual distress. Res Community Ment Health. 1990; 6:107-41

London2014

Nicolson PFlorence: Routledge; 1998

O'Hara MW, McCabe JE Postpartum depression: Current status and future directions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013; 9:379-407

O'Hara MW, Swain AM Rates and risk of postpartum depression—a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1996; 8:37-54

Pachankis JE The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: A cognitive-affective-behavioral model. Psychol Bull. 2007; 133:328-45

Palinkas LA, Horwitz SM, Green CA, Wisdom JP, Duan N, Hoagwood K Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2013; 42:(5)533-44

Patton MLondon: SAGE; 1990

Quinn DM, Chaudoir SR Living with a concealable stigmatized identity: The impact of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, and cultural stigma on psychological distress and health. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2009; 97:634-51

Robertson E, Celason N, Stewart DE Risk factors for postpartum depression. In: Stewart DE, Robertson E, Dennis CL, Grace SL, Wallington TA Toronto: University Health Network Women's Health Program and Toronto Public Health; 2003

Seguin L, Potvin L, St Denis M, Loiselle J Depressive symptoms in the late postpartum among low socioeconomic status women. Birth. 1999; 26:157-63

Shakespeare J, Blake F, Garcia J A qualitative study of the acceptability of routine screening of postnatal women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Gen Pract. 2003; 53:614-9

Smith JA Reflecting on the development interpretative phenomenological analysis and its contribution to qualitative research in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2004; 1:39-54

Smith JA, Osborn M Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Smith JA London: SAGE; 2003

Smith JA, Osborn M Interpretative phenomenological analysis, 2nd edn. In: Smith JA London: SAGE; 2008

Smith JA, Flowers P, Larkin MLos Angeles: SAGE; 2009

Tait L, Heron J Management of postnatal depression in primary care: A window of opportunity. Br J Gen Pract. 2010; 60:(580)801-2

Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire; 2004

Webster J, Nicholas C, Vellacott C, Cridland N, Fawcett L Quality of life and depression following childbirth: Impact of social support. Midwifery. 2011; 27:245-9

Zauderer C Postpartum depression: How childbirth educators can help break the silence. J Perinat Educ. 2009; 18:(2)23-31

The influence of women's perceived entitlement to have postnatal depression on the disclosure process

02 December 2015
12 min read
Volume 23 · Issue 12

Abstract

Studies showing the impact of maternal depression on the mother, infant and wider family have highlighted the importance of mothers feeling able and entitled to disclose postnatal depression (PND) and seek support from others. This paper reports a subset of findings from an interpretative phenomenological analysis of five women interviewed about their experiences of disclosing symptoms of postnatal depression. The findings extend the literature on in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and PND by identifying that perceived entitlement to have PND or seek support can influence the disclosure process. Entitlement appeared to be influenced by the women's own personal contextual factors, including financial status and lifestyles, having children who slept well, partner support and having successful IVF treatment. The findings have clinical implications for health professionals who have regular contact with women in the antenatal and postnatal periods by creating safe contexts to address their beliefs about PND, facilitating disclosure and implementing intervention more promptly.

Maternal postnatal depression (PND) has far-reaching consequences, with research identifying the potential impact of PND on the woman (Cooper and Murray, 1995), infant (O'Hara and McCabe, 2013), the woman's partner (Meighan et al, 1999; Boath et al, 2007) and the family unit (Boath et al, 2007). As disclosure is a prerequisite to accessing social support (Chaudoir and Fisher, 2010), this highlights the importance for women with PND to be aware that they are able and entitled to disclose their symptoms in a safe and trusting environment. There are three forms of support (Robertson et al, 2003):

Studies have consistently found a negative correlation between PND and a lack of emotional and instrumental support (Menaghann, 1990; Beck, 1996; Seguin et al, 1999; Webster et al, 2011). These two forms of support may require greater safety and trust to establish.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content

  • Monthly email newsletter