References

Browne TK Why parents should not be told the sex of their fetus. J Med Ethics. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2015-102989

Davis DS A bar too high: why we should not bar parents from knowing the sex of their fetus. J Med Ethics. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2015-103358

Kane EW Sidestepping a trap: a commentary on ‘why parents should not be told the sex of their fetus’. J Med Ethics. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2015-103193

Kooper AJ, Pieters JJ, Eggink AJ Why do parents prefer to know the fetal sex as part of invasive prenatal testing?. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2012; https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/524537

Lewis C, Choudhury M, Chitty LS ‘Hope for safe prenatal gene tests’. A content analysis of how the UK press media are reporting advances in non-invasive prenatal testing. Prenat Diagn. 2015; 35:(5)420-7 https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.4488

Mikhalevich I, Powell R Sex, lies and gender. J Med Ethics. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2016-103380

Morley L, Simpson N The principles of screening tests as applied to obstetrics and gynaecology. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med. 2016; 26:(1)1-6

Oxenford K, Karunaratna M, Hill M, Taffinder S, Chitty L Progress in prenatal genetic diagnosis: Using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood. British Journal of Midwifery. 2013; 21:(2)84-90 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2013.21.2.84

Ethics of knowing the sex of the fetus

02 June 2016
3 min read
Volume 24 · Issue 5

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively recent development, based on the detection of DNA fragments in maternal serum. Up to 20% of these fragments are fetal DNA shed from the placenta, and NIPT offers a new method of screening for Down syndrome. Although only available privately in the UK at present, researchers including a team from Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, are evaluating a screening role for NIPT in the NHS (Morley and Simpson, 2016).

While noting the important role that midwives are expected to play in ensuring that tests such as NIPT are implemented in practice, Oxenford et al (2013: 88) also highlight ethical aspects of such testing, pointing out, for example, that NIPT as a one-step test for Down syndrome ‘could reduce the decision-making time couples currently have with the two-step process of screening followed by a diagnostic invasive test.’ Browne (2016: 5) has introduced a further ethical dimension, by claiming that ‘in the absence of a desire to avoid sex-linked diseases, information about the sex of the fetus is only useful to parents if they associate it with certain assumptions about gender… that are not based on a biological reality.’ She argues that because there is a potential risk of NIPT expanding the market for sex determination and sex-selective abortion, the sex of the fetus should not be included in prenatal test reports. Making a distinction between the child's gender and its sex, one aim of Dr Browne's paper is ‘to show that parents are not concerned with their child's sex chromosomes, or even their genitalia, but the gender role that their child will espouse.’ Her contention is that the disclosure of the sex of the fetus conflates biologically determined sex with socially determined gender, which amounts to misinformation and ‘promotes sexism via gender essentialism’.

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