References

Beaumont EA Building resilience by cultivating compassion. Healthcare Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal. 2016; 16:(3)22-7

Beaumont EA, Galpin AJ, Jenkins PE ‘Being kinder to myself’: A prospective comparative study, exploring post-trauma therapy outcome measures, for two groups of clients, receiving either cognitive behaviour therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy and compassionate mind training’. Counselling Psychology Review. 2012; 27:(1)31-43

Beaumont E, Hollins Martin CJ Using Compassionate Mind Training as a Resource in EMDR: A Case Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 2013; 7:(4)186-199

Beaumont EA, Hollins Martin CJ A narrative review exploring the effectiveness of compassion focused therapy. Counselling Psychology Review. 2015; 30:(1)21-32

Beaumont E, Durkin M, Hollins Martin CJ, Carson J Compassion for others, self-compassion, quality of life and mental well-being measures and their association with compassion fatigue and burnout in student midwives: A quantitative survey. Midwifery. 2016a; 34:239-44 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2015.11.002

Beaumont E, Irons C, Rayner G, Dagnall N Does Compassion-Focused Therapy Training for Health Care Educators and Providers Increase Self-Compassion and Reduce Self-Persecution and Self-Criticism?. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2016b; 36:(1)4-10 https://doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000023

Bjerknes MS, Bjørk IT Entry into nursing: an ethnographic study of newly qualified nurses taking on the nursing role in a hospital setting. Nurs Res Pract. 2012; 2012:1-7 https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/690348

Brettle A, Grant MJLondon: Churchill Livingstone; 2004

Brown B, Crawford P, Gilbert P, Gilbert J, Gale C Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare. Sociol Health Illn. 2014; 36:(3)383-99 https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12065

Chang EM, Hancock KM, Johnson A, Daly J, Jackson D Role stress in nurses: Review of related factors and strategies for moving forward. Nurs Health Sci. 2005; 7:(1)57-65 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2005.00221.x

Crawford P, Brown B, Kvangarsnes M, Gilbert P The design of compassionate care. J Clin Nurs. 2014; 23:(23–24)3589-99 https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12632

Davies S, Coldridge L No Man's Land: An exploration of the traumatic experiences of student midwives in practice. Midwifery. 2015; 31:(9)858-64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2015.05.001

Depue RA, Morrone-Strupinsky JV A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. Behav Brain Sci. 2005; 28:(3)313-50 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X05000063

Figley CR Compassion fatigue as secondary traumatic stress disorder: An overview.New York: Taylor and Francis; 1995

Figley CRNew York: Brunner Routledge; 2002

Gilbert P Social mentalities: A biopsychosocial and evolutionary approach to social relationships. Interpersonal Cognition. 2005; 299-333

Gilbert PLondon: Constable; 2009

Gilbert P The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. Br J Clin Psychol. 2014; 53:(1)6-41 https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12043

Choden Gilbert PLondon: Constable & Robinson; 2013

Gilbert P, Procter S Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2006; 13:(6)353-79 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.507

Hollins Martin CJ, Forrest EAbingdon: Routledge; 2013

Hollins Martin CJ, Forrest E, Wylie L, Martin CR The Understanding Bereavement Evaluation Tool (UBET) for midwives: Factor structure and clinical research applications. Nurse Educ Today. 2013; 33:(10)1153-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.11.019

Hollins Martin CJ, Forrest E, Wylie L, Martin CR An evaluative survey to assess the effectiveness of using an interactive workbook to deliver bereavement education to undergraduate student midwives. Midwifery. 2014; 30:(8)942-48 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.05.004

Hollins Martin CJ, Robb Y, Forrest E An exploratory qualitative analysis of student midwives views of teaching methods that could build their confidence to deliver perinatal bereavement care. Nurse Educ Today. 2016; 39:99-103 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.12.023

Joinson C Coping with compassion fatigue. Nursing. 1992; 22:(4)116-21 https://doi.org/10.1097/00152193-199204000-00035

Kirkham M The culture of midwifery in the National Health Service in England. J Adv Nurs. 1999; 30:(3)732-9 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01139.x

Klimecki O, Singer T Empathic distress fatigue rather than compassion fatigue? Integrating findings from empathy research in psychology and social neuroscience. In: Oakley B, Knafo A, Madhavan G, Sloan Wilson D (eds). New York: Oxford University Press; 2012

Klimecki OM, Leiberg S, Lamm C, Singer T Functional neural plasticity and associated changes in positive affect after compassion training. Cereb Cortex. 2013; 23:(7)1552-61 https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhs142

Leary MR, Tate EB, Adams CE, Batts Allen A, Hancock J Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007; 92:(5)887-904 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.5.887

Leinweber J, Rowe HJ The costs of being with the woman: secondary traumatic stress in midwifery. Midwifery. 2010; 26:(1)76-87 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2008.04.003

McNeely E The consequences of job stress for nurses health: Time for a check-up. Nurs Outlook. 2005; 53:(6)291-99 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2005.10.001

Maben J, Cornwell J, Sweeney K In praise of compassion. J Res Nurs. 2010; 15:(1)9-13 https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987109353689

Mander R, 2nd edn. London: Routledge; 2006

Mayhew SL, Gilbert P Compassionate mind training with people who hear malevolent voices: a case series report. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2008; 15:(2)113-38 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.566

Miller KI, Stiff JB, Ellis BH Communication and empathy as precursors to burnout among human service workers. Communication Monographs. 1988; 55:(3)250-65 https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758809376171

Mollart L, Skinner VM, Newing C, Foureur M Factors that may influence midwives work-related stress and burnout. Women Birth. 2013; 26:(1)26-32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2011.08.002

Neff KD The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity. 2003; 2:(3)223-50 https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309027

Neff KD, Beretvas SN The role of self-compassion in romantic relationships. Self and Identity. 2013; 12:(1)78-98 https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2011.639548

London: NMC; 2015

Pommier EA The compassion scale: dissertation abstracts international (Section A). Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011; 72

Raab K Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature. J Health Care Chaplain. 2014; 20:(3)95-108 https://doi.org/10.1080/08854726.2014.913876

Richards K Self-care is a lifelong journey. Nurs Econ. 2013; 31:(4)198-199

Sabo BM Compassion fatigue and nursing work: Can we accurately capture the consequences of caring work?. Int J. 2006; 12:(3)136-42 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00562.x

Shanafelt TD, Bradley KA, Wipf JE, Back AL Burnout and self-reported patient care in an internal medicine residence program. Fam J Alex Va. 2002; 12:396-400

Sheen K, Slade P, Spiby H An integrative review of the impact of indirect trauma exposure in health professionals and potential issues of salience for midwives. J Adv Nurs. 2014; 70:(4)729-43 https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12274

Professional Quality of Life: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue (ProQOL) Version 5. 2009. http://tinyurl.com/j7cvyc9 (accessed 14 October 2016)

Tennant R, Hiller L, Fishwick R, Platt S, Joseph S, Weich S, Parkinson J, Secker J, Stewart-Brown S The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007; 5:(1) https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-5-63

Vahey DC, Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Clarke SP, Vargas D Nurse burnout and patient satisfaction. Medical Care. 2004; 42:(2)II57-II66

van Mol MMC, Kompanje EJO, Benoit DD, Bakker J, Nijkamp MD The Prevalence of Compassion Fatigue and Burnout among Healthcare Professionals in Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10:(8) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136955

Wiklund Gustin L, Wagner L The butterfly effect of caring – clinical nursing teachers understanding of self-compassion as a source to compassionate care. Scand J Caring Sci. 2013; 27:(1)175-83 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2012.01033.x

Yoshida Y, Sandall J Occupational burnout and work factors in community and hospital midwives: A survey analysis. Midwifery. 2013; 29:(8)921-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2012.11.002

Heightening levels of compassion towards self and others through use of compassionate mind training

02 November 2016
16 min read
Volume 24 · Issue 11

Abstract

Background:

A continued absence of strategies that promote self-care puts midwives at risk of experiencing symptoms of stress, empathic distress fatigue, burnout, and compassion fatigue, all of which can affect midwives' performance and the level of compassion they show to others.

Aims:

The objective of this paper is to outline a possible education strategy for student midwives that has the potential to affect the level of compassion that the individual can show both to him/herself and others in times of suffering.

Suggested approach:

Compassionate mind training (CMT) has been found to be beneficial in clinical populations with individuals who report symptoms of primary trauma, low levels of self-compassion, and who are self-critical. Student midwives bear witness to the traumas of others, so it is important to consider an intervention to help student midwives who may experience symptoms of secondary trauma, self-criticism, or low levels of self-compassion while in training.

Conclusion:

Incorporating CMT into undergraduate midwifery degree programmes may help student midwives become sensitive to their own suffering, and could potentially help them cope with emotional demands, placement anxieties and organisational pressures.

Sustaining compassion across long periods of time is an essential part of a midwife's role, with stress experienced from continual exposure to traumatic events potentially resulting in emotional fallout. As a consequence, midwives may experience symptoms of empathic distress fatigue (Klimecki and Singer, 2012), compassion fatigue (Sabo, 2006), secondary trauma (Leinweber and Rowe, 2010), and burnout—all of which can have an impact on the level of compassion the individual is able to show towards him/herself and others (Figley, 1995; 2002). Introducing student midwives to interventions that aim to promote self-compassion is, therefore, vital; this may furnish them with some of the coping strategies needed to manage emotional distress. The aim of this article is to explore an intervention designed to increase student midwives' levels of compassion for themselves and reduce levels of self-criticism.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month