The relationship between interpersonal trauma and substance misuse in pregnancy
Trauma is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) as exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violence in one or more of four ways (
Interpersonal trauma (IPT) is therefore recognised as a result of a variety of experiences including childhood maltreatment, sexual assault, physical assault, intimate partner violence, war, bereavement and crime.
Experiences of trauma are commonplace and remain embedded in global culture and economics, particularly for women and children. The
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