References

Alfaraj SH, Al-Tawfiq JA, Memish ZA. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection during pregnancy: Report of two cases and review of the literature. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.. 2019; 2:(3)501-503 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2018.04.005

Aghaeepour N, Ganio EA, Mcilwain D, Tsai AS, Tingle M, Van Gassen S, Ghaemi MS An immune clock of human pregnancy. Science Immunology.. 2017; 2:(15)1-11 https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aan2946

Ashish KC, Gurung R, Kinney MV, Sunny AK, Moinuddin M, Basnet O, Målqvist M Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic response on intrapartum care, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality outcomes in Nepal: a prospective observational study. The Lancet Global Health.. 2020; 8:(10)e1273-e1281

Ashokka B, Loh M, Tan CH, Su LL, Young BE, Lye DC, Biswas A, Illanes SE, Choolani M. Care of the pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 in labor and delivery: anesthesia, emergency caesarean delivery, differential diagnosis in the acutely ill parturient, care of the newborn, and the protection of the healthcare personnel. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 223:(1)66-74.e3 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.04.005

Arksey H, O'Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology.. 2005; 8:(1)19-32 https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616

Bennett E, Simpson W, Fowler C, Munns A, Kohlhoff J. Enhancing access to parenting services using digitally supported practices. Australian Journal of Child and Family Health Nursing.. 2020; 17:(1)

Buekens P, Alger J, Bréart G, Cafferata ML, Harville E, Tomasso G. A call for action for COVID-19 surveillance and research during pregnancy. The Lancet Global Health.. 2020; 8:(7)E877-E878 https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30206-0

Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, Li J, Zhao D, Xu D, Gong Q, Liao J, Yang H, Huo W, Zhang Y. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet. 2020a; 395:(10226)809-815 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3

Chen L, Li Q, Zheng D, Jiang H, Wei Y, Zou L, Feng L, Xiong G, Sun G, Wang H, Zhao Y, Qiao J. Clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020b; https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMC2009226

Women's experiences of maternity care during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. 2020. https://www.midwives.org.au/news/womens-experiences-maternity-care-height-covid-19 (accessed 11 March 2021)

De Rose DU, Piersigilli F, Ronchetti MP, Santisi A, Bersani I, Dotta A, Danhaive O, Auriti C Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in newborns and infants: what we know so far. Italian Journal of Pediatrics.. 2020; 46 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-020-0820-x

Di Mascio D, Khail A, Saccone G, Rizzo G, Bucca D, Liberatic M, Vecchiet J, Nappi L., Scambia G, Berghella V, D'Antonio F. Outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 2:(2) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100107

Estes ML, McAllister AK. Maternal immune activation: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Science.. 2020; 353:772-777

Favre G, Pomar L, Musso D, Baud D. 2019-nCoV epidemic: what about pregnancies?. The Lancet.. 2020; 395:(10224) https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0140-6736(20)30311-1

Fowler C, Green J, Whiting L, Petty J, Rossiter C, Elliott D. The forgotten mothers of extremely preterm babies: need for increased psychosocial support. Journal of Clinical Nursing.. 2019; 8:(11-12)2124-2134

Fowler C, Bennett E, Simpson W. Enhancing access to parenting services through the use of digital technology supported practices: Research Report, AAPCH.Canberra2020

Gatta AND, Rizzo R, Pilu G, Simonazzi G. Coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy: a systematic review of reported cases. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 223 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.04.013

Green JA, Petty J, Bromley P, Walker K, Jones LK. COVID-19 in babies: Knowledge for neonatal care. Journal of Neonatal Nursing. 2020a; 26:(5)239-246

Green J, Petty J, Whiting L, Fowler C. Exploring modifiable risk-factors for premature birth in the context of COVID-19 mitigation measures: a discussion paper. Journal of Neonatal Nursing. 2020b; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnn.2020.11.004

Green J, Staff L, Bromley P, Petty J, Jones L. The implications of face masks for babies and families during the COVID-19 pandemic: a discussion paper. Journal of Neonatal Nursing.. 2021; 27:(1)21-25 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnn.2020.10.005

Gülçin UC. SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and associated cytokine-storm. Critical Care Obstetrics and Gynecology.. 2020; 6:(2)

Changes in premature birth rates during the Danish nationwide COVID-19 lockdown: a nationwide register-based prevalence proportion study. 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/

Hooge S, Benzies K, Mannion C. Effects of a brief prevention-focused parenting education program for new mothers. Western Journal of Nursing Research.. 2014; 36 https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0193945913519871

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Cheng Z Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet.. 2020; 395 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5

International Confederation of Midwives. Women's rights in childbirth must be upheld during the coronavirus pandemic. 2020. https://www.internationalmidwives.org/icm-news/women%E2%80%99s-rights-in-childbirth-must-be-upheld-during-the-coronavirus-pandemic.html?fbclid=IwAR0cAjICs4tOHn8fz8P__Y1o0qkeWCzDgkf36INDal2hjiyVMBey9bMSe0A (accessed 11 March 2021)

Johnson CK, Hitchens PL, Evans TS, Goldstein T, Thomas K, Clements A, Mazet JK Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity. Scientific Reports.. 2015; 5 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14830

Knight M, Bunch K, Vousden N, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, O'Brien P, Quigley M, Brocklehurst P., Kurinczuk JJ. Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SAR-CoV-2 infection in UK: national population-based cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). British Medical Journal.. 2020; 369 https://doi.org/10.1136

Levac D, Colquhoun H, O'Brien KK. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology. Implementation Science.. 2010; 5 https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69

Li Y, Long Z, Cao D, Cao F. Social support and depression across the perinatal period: A longitudinal study. Journal of Clinical Nursing.. 2017; 26 https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13817

Liu Y, Gayle AA, Wilder-Smith A, Rocklöv J. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus. Journal of Travel Medicine.. 2020a; 27 https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa021

Liu H, Wang LL, Zhao SJ, Kwak-Kim J, Mor G, Liao AH. Why are pregnant women susceptible to viral infection: an immunological viewpoint? Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2020b; 139 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2020.103122

Liu W, Wang J, Li W, Zhou Z, Liu S, Rong Z. Clinical characteristics of 19 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Frontiers of Medicine. 2020c; 14 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0772-y

Martins-Filho PR, Tanajura DM. COVID-19 during pregnancy: potential risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in neonates?. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology.. 2020; 5 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrh.2020.05.015

Murphy PA. Midwifery in the time of COVID-19. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health.. 2020; 13 https://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.13121

Home-Birthing and Free-Birthing in the era of COVID-19. 2020. https://blogs.bmj.com/bmjsrh/2020/04/02/home-birth-covid-19/

New South Wales Government and Clinical Excellence Commission. Infection prevention and control. Management of COVID-19 in healthcare settings version 3.2. 2020. http://cec.health.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/582112/Management-of-COVID_19-in-Healthcare-Settings.pdf (accessed 11 March 2021)

Nuriel-Ohayon M, Neuman H, Koren O. Microbial changes during pregnancy, birth, and infancy. Frontiers in Microbiology.. 2016; 7 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01031

O'Connell M, Crowther S, Ravaldi C, Homer C. Midwives in a pandemic: a call for solidarity and compassion. Women and Birth.. 2020; 33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2020.03.008

Owen N. Feasibility and acceptability of using telehealth for early intervention parent counselling. Advances in Mental Health.. 2020; 18:(1)39-49

Parrish CR, Holmes EC, Morens DM, Park E, Burke DS, Calisher CH, Laughlin CA, Saif LJ, Daszak P. Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.. 2008; 272 https://doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.00004-08

Philip RK, Purtill H, Reidy E, Daly M, Imcha M, McGrath D, O'Connell NH, Dunne CP. Reduction in preterm births during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Ireland: a Natural experiment allowing analysis of data from the prior two decades. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.03.20121442

Qi H, Luo X, Zheng Y, Zhang H, Li J, Zou L, Feng L, Chen D, Shi Y, Tong C, Baker PN. Safe delivery for pregnancies affected by COVID-19. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 127 https://doi.org/101.1111/1471-0528.16231

Rasmussen SA, Smulian JC, Lednicky JA, Wen TS, Jamieson DJ. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: what obstetricians need to know. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 222 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.017

Renfrew MJ, Cheye H, Craig J, Duff E, Dykes F, Hunter B, Lavender T, Page L, Ross-Davie M, Spiby H, Downe S. Sustaining quality midwifery care in a pandemic and beyond. Midwifery.. 2020; 88 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2020.102759

Richens Y., Wilkinson M, Connor D. Guidance for the provision of antenatal services during the COVID-19 pandemic. British Journal of Midwifery.. 2020; 28 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2020.28.5.324

Rocca-Ihenacho L, Alonso C. Where do women birth during a pandemic? Changing perspectives on Safe Motherhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Global Health Science.. 2020; 2 https://doi.org/10.35500/jghs.2020.2.e4

The impact of COVID-19 on identifying and managing perinatal anxiety. 2020. https://bjgp.org/content/impact-COVID-19-identifying-and-managing-perinatal-anxiety

Silasi M, Cardenas I, Kwon JY, Racicot K, Aldo P, Mor G. Viral infections during pregnancy. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.. 2015; 73 https://doi.org/10.1111/aji.12355

Skurzak A, Kicia M, Wiktor K, Iwanowicz-Palus G, Wiktor H. Social support for pregnant women. Polish Journal of Public Health.. 2015; 125 https://doi.org/10.1515/pjph-2015-0048

Walker KF, O'Donoghue K, Dorling N, Commeau JL, Li W, Thornton JG. Maternal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to the neonate, and possible routes for such transmission: a systematic review and critical analysis. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 163 https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16362

Werenberg Dreier J, Nybo Andersen AM, Hvolby A, Garne E, Kragh Andersen P, Berg-Beckhoff G. Fever and infections in pregnancy and risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.. 2016; 57 https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12480

Wong SF, Chow KM, Leung TN, Ng WF, Ng TK, Shek CC, Lai ST. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2004; 191 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2003.11.019

World Health Organization. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. 2020. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(COVID-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (accessed 11 March 2021)

Yan J, Guo J, Fan C, Juan J, Yu X, Li J, Feng L, Li C, Chen H, Qiao Y, Lei D. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women: A report based on 116 cases. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. 2020; 223 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.04.014

Zaigham M, Andersson O. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID-19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13867

Part 1: COVID-19 and knowledge for midwifery practice—impact and care of pregnant women

02 April 2021
15 min read
Volume 29 · Issue 3

Abstract

The emergence of viral diseases, such as COVID-19, represents a global public health threat, particularly the high-impact animal viruses that have switched hosts and are able to be transmitted within human populations. Pandemics threaten the general population; however, there are special groups, such as pregnant women and their babies, which may be at a higher risk of, or more severely affected by infection. Pregnancy is considered a unique immunological condition; therefore, current challenges include decisions on preventing and treating infections during pregnancy and the possible implications for the fetus and newborn infant. This integrative review, the first of a two-part series, analyses selected literature on COVID-19 within maternal and newborn care, drawing on key themes relating to the impact on the pregnant woman. The themes discussed are: the nature of the immune system in pregnant and newly birthed mothers, maternal risk, mode and timing of birth, care during pregnancy and childbirth, and the transition to parenthood including the implications for practice for maternal mental wellbeing.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a clinical syndrome caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19), became a pandemic following an outbreak of viral pneumonitis, first identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause a range of illnesses including the common cold, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). When a new strain of coronavirus is discovered, it is called a ‘novel’ coronavirus because it is new and has not been previously identified (Centers for Disease and Prevention [CDC], 2020). The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses formally named the virus SARS-CoV-2 due to its genetic similarity to the virus that caused the SARS outbreak in 2003 (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020).

Coronaviruses are not just present in humans, with animals also having coronavirus-related illnesses. These viruses can mutate and be passed on to humans (Parrish et al, 2008). When the disease crosses over from animal to human, it is referred to as a ‘zoonotic spillover’ (Johnson et al, 2015). The resultant disease can be more severe because humans have not had to fight the illness before and the infection can amplify by human-to-human transmission with spread on a global scale, with COVID-19 being a prime example (Johnson et al, 2015). While not initially identified as a population at risk, pregnant woman may be more vulnerable to severe infection (Favre et al, 2020).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month