References

Aparicio EM, Shpiegel S, Grinnell-Davis C, King B. ‘My body is strong and amazing’: embodied experiences of pregnancy and birth among young women in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review. 2019; 98:199-205 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.01.007

Arthur BA, Unwin S, Mitchell T. Teenage mothers' experiences of maternity services: a qualitative study. British Journal of Midwifery. 2007; 15:(11)672-678 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2007.15.11.28605

Bailey N, Brown G, DiMarco H, Letherby G, Wilson C. Teenage pregnancy: medical encounters. British Journal of Midwifery. 2004; 12:(1)680-685 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2004.12.11.16691

Best Beginnings. The national teenage pregnancy midwifery network. 2020. https://www.bestbeginnings.org.uk/national-teenage-pregnancy-midwifery-network (accessed 10 April 2020)

Brink H, Van der Walt C, Van Rensburg G. Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Healthcare Professionals, 3rd edition. South Africa: Juta and Company Ltd; 2012

Cambridge University Press. Black. 2019a. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/black (accessed 22 November 2019)

Cambridge University Press. 2019b. Interpersonal. 2019b. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/interpersonal (accessed 6 October 2019)

Cambridge University Press. Intrapersonal. 2019c. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/intrapersonal (accessed 26 November 2019)

Chadwick RJ, Cooper D, Harries J. Narratives of distress about birth in South African public maternity settings: a qualitative study. Midwifery. 2014; 30:(7)862-868 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.12.014

Cipolletta S, Balasso S. When everything seems right: the first birth experience of women in an Italian hospital. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2011; 29:(4)374-381 https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2011.618944

Colaizzi P. Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it. In: Valle R, King M (eds). New York: Oxford University Press;

Cook SMC, Cameron ST. Social issues of teenage pregnancy. Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine. 2017; 27:(11)327-332 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogrm.2017.08.005

D'Oliveira AFP, Diniz A, Schraiber L. Violence against women in health-care institutions: an emerging problem. Lancet. 2002; 359:1681-1685 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08592-6

Elmir R, Schmied V, Wilkes L, Jackson D. Women's perceptions and experiences of a traumatic birth: a meta-ethnography. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2010; 66:(10)2142-2153 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05391.x

Encyclopaedia Brittanica Incorporated. 2019. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Coloured (accessed 26 November 2019)

Ganchimeg T, Ota E, Morisaki N, Laopiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Zhang J, Yamdamsuren B, Temmerman M, Say L, Tuncalp O, Vogel JP, Souza JP, Mori R. Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG. 2014; 121:(1)40-48 https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12630

Goodman P, Mackey MC, Tavakoli A. Factors related to childbirth satisfaction Factors related to childbirth satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2004; 46:(2)212-219 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2003.02981.x

Jennings JL. Husserl revisited: the forgotten distinction between psychology and phenomenology. Am. Psychol. 1986; 41:(11) https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.41.11.1231

Jewkes R, Abrahams N, Mvo Z. Why do nurses abuse patients? Reflections from South African obstetric services. Social Science and Medicine. 1998; 47:(11)1781-1795 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00240-8

Jewkes R, Penn-Kekana L. Mistreatment of women in childbirth: time for action on this important dimension of violence against women. PLOS Medicine. 2015; 12:(6)1-5 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001849

Khresheh R. Support in the first stage of labour from a female relative: the first step in improving the quality of maternity services. Midwifery. 2010; 26:(6)e21-e24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2008.11.003

Koffman O. Children having children? religion, psychology and the birth of the teenage pregnancy problem. History of the Human Sciences. 2012; 25:(1)119-134 https://doi.org/10.1177/0952695111426383

Leicester Maternity Services. Young mums. 2012. http://www.leicestermaternity.nhs.uk/antenatal/lifestyle/young-mums/ (accessed 10 April 2020)

Local Government Association. Brighton and Hove: the benefits of a specialist teenage midwife. 2020. https://www.local.gov.uk/brighton-and-hove-benefits-specialist-teenage-midwife (accessed 10 April 2020)

Low L, Martin K, Sampselle C, Guthrie B, Oakley D. Adolescents' experiences of childbirth: contrasts with adults. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2003; 48:(3)192-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1526-9523(03)00091-6

McConnell-Henry T, Chapman Y, Francis K. Husserl and Heidegger: Exploring the disparity. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2009; 15:(1)7-15 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2008.01724.x

Michels A, Kruske S, Thompson R. Women's postnatal psychological functioning: the role of satisfaction with intrapartum care and the birth experience. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2013; 31:(2)172-182 https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2013.791921

Montgomery KS. Nursing care for pregnant adolescents. JOGNN. 2003; 32:(2)249-257 https://doi.org/10.1177/0884217503252191

Renfrew MJ, McFadden A, Bastos MH, Campbell J, Channon AA, Cheung NF, Silva DRAD, Downe S, KEnnedy HP, Malata A, McCormick F, Wick L, Declerq E. Midwifery and quality care: Findings from a new evidence-informed framework for maternal and newborn care. Lancet. 2014; 384:(9948)1129-1145 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60789-3

Rijinders M, Baston H, Schönbeck Y, Van der Pal K, Prins M, Green J, Buitendijk S. Perinatal factors related to negative or positive recal of birth experience in women 3 years postpartum in the Netherlands. Birth. 2008; 35:(2)107-116 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2008.00223.x

Sapountzi-Krepia D, Tsaloglidou A, Psychogiou M, Lazaridou C, Julkunen KV. Mothers' experiences of pregnancy, labour and childbirth: a qualitative study in Northern Greece. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2011; 17:(6)583-590 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2011.01975.x

Sauls DJ. ‘Promoting a positive childbirth experience for adolescents’. JOGNN. 2010; 39:(6)703-712 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2010.01182.x

Sauls DJ, Grassley J. Development of the adolescent support model. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing. 2011; 15:(1)24-28

Consciousness and intentionality. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-intentionality/ (accessed 24 January 2015)

Phenomenology. 2013. http://plato.stanford.edu.ezproxy.uct.ac.za/entries/phenomenology/ (accessed 25 June 2014)

South African Department of Justice. Children's Act, No. 38 of 2005. South Africa: Government Gazette, Section 17: age of majority. 2006. http://www.dsd.gov.za/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=51&Itemid=39 (accessed 24 June 2014)

Statistics South Africa. Recorded live births. 2019. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0305/P03052018.pdf (accessed 24 June 2014)

Leeds Teaching Hospital. Teenage pregnancy team. 2020. https://www.leedsth.nhs.uk/a-z-of-services/leeds-maternity-care/meet-the-team/teenage-pregnancy-team/ (accessed 10 April 2020)

Torres A, Lau M, Flores G. Preventing Teen pregancy: a qualitative study of the perspectives of parenting and expecting Latino adolescents. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2015; 28:(2)e34-e35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2015.02.013

United Nations Population Fund. Adolescent pregnancy. United Nations Population Fund: topics. 2017. https://www.unfpa.org/adolescent-pregnancy (accessed 21 January 2019)

World Health Organization. Adolescent pregnancy. 2018a. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-pregnancy (accessed 15 December 2019)

World Health Organization. WHO recommendations intrapartum care for a positive childbirth experience. 2018b. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/260178/1/9789241550215-eng.pdf?ua=1%0A (accessed 10 July 2019)

World Health Organization. Prevention and elimination of disrespect and abuse during childbirth. 2020. https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/maternal_perinatal/statement-childbirth-rights/en/ (accessed 10 April 2020)

World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. 2013. https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/ (accessed 11 August 2019)

Zasloff E, Schytt E, Waldenström U. First time mothers' pregnancy and birth experiences varying by age. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2007; 86:(11)1328-1336 https://doi.org/10.1080/00016340701657209

‘Please treat me like a person’—respectful care during adolescent childbirth

02 June 2020
17 min read
Volume 28 · Issue 6

Abstract

Background

This study explored the lived childbirth experiences of ‘middle adolescent’ mothers between 14–16 years of age.

Study design

A qualitative design was followed with a Husserlian phenomenological approach and Colaizzi's seven steps to unravelling information. Using semi-structured conversations, information was gathered from six middle-adolescent mothers who had normal vaginal births of healthy term infants in two public hospitals in South Africa.

Findings

An overarching theme of preservation of personhood was identified. Three themes emerged i) unpreparedness for childbirth, ii) an unsettled state of mind during childbirth and iii) feeling overwhelmed by the experience.

Conclusion

More positive birth experiences were associated with respectful, non-judgmental midwife care and having their mothers as birth companions while humiliation, victimisation and rudeness were associated with negative birth experiences.

Recommendations

More focus is needed on adolescent-friendly healthcare services and age-appropriate education; continuous labour support; pain management and respectful care during childbirth.

The risk factors, health implications and socio-economic repercussions of adolescent pregnancy and early childbearing is widely covered in literature. The World Health Organization ([WHO], 2018a) and the United Nations Population Fund (2017) coordinate through various ongoing campaigns to address this phenomenon that is regarded as a global issue, accounting for 11% of births worldwide (Koffman, 2012; Ganchimeg et al, 2014; Torres et al, 2015; Cook and Cameron, 2017). In South Africa, in 2018, 107 548 adolescent girls between 15–19 years of age, and 3 235 adolescent girls between 10–14 years of age registered births—together representing 11% of all 1 009 065 registered births in the country during that year (Statistics South Africa, 2019).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content

  • Monthly email newsletter