References

Bassett C Phenomenology. In: Bassett C London: Whurr; 2004

Clift-Matthews V Providing long-term support to women. British Journal of Midwifery. 2010; 18:(7) https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2010.18.7.48778

Colaizzi PFNew York: Oxford University Press; 1978

Green J, Thorogood N, 2nd Ed.. Los Angeles: SAGE; 2009

Health and Social Care Information Centre. Statistics on Women's Smoking Status at Time of Delivery: England. Quarter 4—April 2013 to March 2014. 2014. http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB14258/stat-wome-smok-time-deli-eng-q4-13-14-rep.pdf (accessed 18 June 2015)

Holloway I Qualitative writing.London: Open University Press; 2005

King D, Edwards G Factors surrounding tools used in smoking and pregnancy research. British Journal of Midwifery. 2009; (17):316-9 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2009.17.5.42227

Lumley L, Chamberlain C, Dowswell T Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 3

Mantzari E, Voft F, Marteau TM The effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy: Is it from being paid or from the extra aid?. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012; 12

Fair society, healthy lives: The Marmot Review. Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post-2010. 2010. http://tinyurl.com/cffvo7o (accessed 8 June 2015)

Fury at smoking breath test for all mothers-to-be as it is revealed one in three still light up during pregnancy. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/cppdmeg (accessed 5 June 2015)

McNeill A, Amos A, McEwen A Developing the evidence base for addressing inequalities and smoking in the United Kingdom. Addiction. 2012; 107:1-7

Miller WL, Crabtree BF Primary care research: a multimethod typology and qualitative road map.California: SAGE; 1992

Rees C, 3rd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2011

Robinson A Phenomenology, 2nd ed.. In: Cluett ER, Bluff R Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2006

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Quitting smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth. NICE public health guidance 26. 2010. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph26 (accessed 23 June 2015)

We need better data on smoking in pregnancy. BMJ. 2008; 336:(7639) https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39479.677188.BD

O'Gorman C Dying for a cigarette. Midwives. 2011; 14:(7)32-4

Tappin D, Bauld L, Purves D Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2015; 350 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h134

Pregnant women's reactions to routine CO monitoring in the antenatal clinic

02 July 2015
13 min read
Volume 23 · Issue 7

Abstract

Guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, 2010) recommend the use of routine carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring in all pregnant women. However, there is no research describing pregnant women's experiences of being offered the CO test at booking.

Method:

This was part of a phenomenological study conducted to examine midwives’ experience of using CO monitoring for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out and recorded with 10 midwives who use CO monitoring at booking. They were asked about women's reactions to the test. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's (1978) approach and bracketing.

Results:

Midwives reported that women were generally happy to accept the test. However, pregnant women appeared to be uninformed about it. Other reactions described include curiosity, shock, relief, guilt and surprise at the results.

Conclusion:

Overall, women's reactions were positive but an increased public awareness of the test would smooth its implementation.

Carbon monoxide (CO), a colourless, odourless and poisonous gas, is a waste product of cigarette smoking. CO monitoring is an immediate and non-invasive method of determining smoking status (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2010). CO monitoring has been found to be useful in identifying smokers for referral to specialist smoking cessation services, and it is suggested to be more objective than the use of questionnaires in determining levels of smoking in pregnant women (King and Edwards, 2009), who may feel guilty or ashamed and therefore under-report their smoking habits to midwives.

The measurement of CO level is referred to as a biomarker (King and Edwards, 2009) and is carried out by a breath test. Air is exhaled into the CO breath test monitor and a reading is given after a countdown of 10 seconds.

A chart is provided with details of expected levels, which are colour-coded for ease of use: green indicates normal levels, while red indicates high levels of CO.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month