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Translation and validation of the first time fathers questionnaire into Persian

02 October 2021
Volume 29 · Issue 10



The presence of fathers during labour and birth can have favourable outcomes for the health of the mother, father and infant. However, there are few studies on fathers' experiences while being present during labour and birth, which necessitates the development of a valid questionnaire for this purpose. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the first time fathers questionnaire into Persian.


A total of 220 first-time fathers at private midwifery counseling centers were given a translated questionnaire to complete. Forward-backward translation of the questionnaire was conducted and content, face and construct validity were examined. After extracting factors and item distribution, confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Cronbach's alpha was used for reliability.


A valid 19-item questionnaire with four dimensions, ‘worry’, ‘acceptance and support during labor’, ‘support during and after birth’, and ‘preparedness’ was obtained. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.78.


The Persian questionnaire is valid and reliable for examining the experiences of first-time fathers. It can be employed to evaluate fathers' experiences during labour and birth in midwifery services planning to promote quality of care during childbirth.

Childbirth is a vital time in the life of families and can affect future health and wellbeing. To achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3, ‘to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages’, it should be ensured that women and their children realise their maximum potential for living a healthy life (Fernandez, 2020). The selection of a birth companion during labour and childbirth is recommended for all women. This companion can be the woman's husband or sexual partner (World Health Organization (WHO), 2018). Providing emotional and social support during labour is a key aspect of high-quality maternal care (Bohren et al, 2019).

The experience of becoming a father for the first time is an important part of a man's life (Condon et al, 2004). Today, the definition of fatherhood has expanded, and their role is no longer limited to their children's life, but encompasses roles taken throughout the mother's pregnancy, labour and childbirth as well (Xue et al, 2018). Fathers play a major role in mothers' and infants' health (Plantin et al, 2011). Studies show that some fathers have good experiences of being present during their wife's labour and childbirth; nevertheless, some fathers realise that this process is much more difficult and emotional than they expected (Chandler and Field, 1997). First-time fathers are more vulnerable during the process of childbirth (Premberg et al, 2012). For these men, pregnancy and birth can be important and stressful events (Carlson et al, 2014).

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