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Validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the perceived insufficient milk questionnaire

02 October 2022
Volume 30 · Issue 10



This study aimed to translate the perceived insufficient milk questionnaire into the Chinese language, Mandarin, perform cultural adaptation, and evaluate its validity and reliability.


The perceived insufficient milk questionnaire was translated using a forward-backward process. An expert panel evaluated content validity with both item and scale content validity indices. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated by the Cronbach alpha coefficient. With a 1-week interval, the test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient.


A total of 328 participants were recruited. The item-level content validity index was as high (0.83–1.0), and the scale-level content validity index was 0.92, indicating excellent validity. A single-factor model was verified as acceptable with good fit indices. The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.943) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.870–0.974) were good.


The Chinese version of the perceived insufficient milk questionnaire had acceptable validity and reliability. It is helpful for healthcare providers to evaluate mother's beliefs about breastmilk quantity and nutritional quality, preventing early cessation of breastfeeding through timely interventions.

Breastmilk provides ideal nourishment for infants. The health benefits of breastfeeding for mothers and their babies are unmatched. Breastfeeding can lower a mother's risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and diabetes (Chowdhury et al, 2015; Louis-Jacques and Alison Stuebe, 2018). Breastfeeding for 6 months can result in losing approximately 3kg of fat, helping mothers return to their prenatal weight (Del Ciampo and Del Ciampo, 2018). Breastfeeding can also help protect babies against sudden infant death syndrome and infant mortality (Adams, 2017). With a mix of vitamins, protein, fats and antibodies, infants fed with breastmilk have a lower risk of childhood obesity as well as atopic and infectious diseases (Brahm and Valdés, 2017; Qiao et al, 2020). The physiological and emotional connection formed during breastfeeding has a protective effect on maternal mood and stress, and the child's cognitive and emotional development (Safadi et al, 2016; Krol and Grossmann, 2018).

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