References

Besnard M, Lastère S, Teissier A, Cao-Lormeau V, Musso D Evidence of perinatal transmission of Zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014. Eurosurveillance. 2014; 19:(13) https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.13.20751

Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Raja Gabaglia C, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Carvalho de Sequeira P, Machado Siqueira A, Abreu de Carvalho LM, Cotrim da Cunha D, Calvet GA, Neves ES, Moreira ME, Rodrigues Baião AE, Nassar de Carvalho PR, Janzen C, Valderramos SG, Cherry JD, Bispo de Filippis AM, Nielsen-Saines K Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro – preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1602412

Zika and birth defects: what we know and what we don't. Nature. 2016. http://www.nature.com/news/zika-and-birth-defects-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-1.19596 (accessed 25 August 2016)

Calvet G, Aguiar RS, Melo AS, Sampaio SA, de Filippis I, Fabri A, Araujo ES, de Sequeira PC, de Mendonça MC, de Oliveira L, Tschoeke DA, Schrago CG, Thompson FL, Brasil P, Dos Santos FB, Nogueira RM, Tanuri A, de Filippis AM Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: a case study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016; 16:(6)653-60 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00095-5

Cauchemez S, Besnard M, Bompard P, Dub T, Guillemette-Artur P, Eyrolle-Guignot D, Salje H, Van Kerkhove MD, Abadie V, Garel C, Fontanet A, Mallet HP Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study. Lancet. 2016; 387:(10033)2125-32 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00651-6

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus. 2016a. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html (accessed 25 August 2016)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Facts about microcephaly. 2016b. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/microcephaly.html (accessed 25 August 2016)

Davidson A, Slavinski S, Komoto K, Rakeman J, Weiss D Suspected Female-to-Male Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — New York City, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65:(28)716-17

Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, Biron A, O'Connor O, Huguon E, Descloux E Infectious Zika viral particles in breastmilk. Lancet. 2016; 387:(10023) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00624-3

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Current Zika transmission. 2016. http://tinyurl.com/jkcrzvc (accessed on 31 August 2016)

Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. Contraception advice for individuals travelling to Brazil for the 2016 Olympics and their partners - 28 July 2016. 2016. http://tinyurl.com/zo5ndg8 (accessed 25 August 2016)

Ferguson NM, Cucunubá ZM, Dorigatti I, Nedjati-Gilani GL, Donnelly CA, Basáñez MG, Nouvellet P, Lessler J Countering the Zika epidemic in Latin America. Science. 2016; 353:(6297)353-4 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag0219

Fréour T, Mirallié S, Hubert B, Splingart C, Barrière P, Maquart M, Leparc-Goffart I Sexual transmission of Zika virus in an entirely asymptomatic couple returning from a Zika epidemic area, France, April 2016. Eurosurveillance. 2016; 21:(23) https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.23.30254

Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, Blitvich BJ, Travassos da Rosa A, Haddow AD, Lanciotti RS, Tesh RB Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17:(5)880-2 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101939

Hills SL, Russell K, Hennessey M, Williams C, Oster AM, Fischer M, Mead P Transmission of Zika virus through sexual contact with travellers to areas of ongoing transmission – continental United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65:(8)215-16 https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6508e2

Johansson MA, Mier-y-Teran-Romero L, Reefhuis J, Gilboa SM, Hills SL Zika and the risk of microcephaly. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375:(1)1-4 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1605367

Martines RB, Bhatnagar J, Keating MK, Silva-Flannery L, Muehlenbachs A, Gary J, Goldsmith C, Hale G, Ritter J, Rollin D, Shieh WJ, Luz KG, Ramos AM, Davi HP, Kleber de Oliveria W, Lanciotti R, Lambert A, Zaki S Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses—Brazil, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65:(6)159-60 https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6506e1

Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, Vizjak A, Pižem J, Petrovec M, Avšič Županc T Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med. 2016; 374:(10)951-8 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1600651

Mansuy JM, Pasquier C, Daudin M, Chapuy-Regaud S, Moinard N, Chevreau C, Izopet J, Mengelle C, Bujan L Zika virus in semen of a patient returning from a non-epidemic area. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016; 16:(8)894-5 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30153-0

Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg?. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 47:(1)6-7 https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.15831

Washington DC: PAHO/WHO; 2016

Public Health England. Zika virus (ZIKV): clinical and travel guidance. 2016a. http://www.gov.uk/guidance/zika-virus (accessed 25 August 2016)

Public Health England. Zika virus: sample testing advice. 2016b. http://www.gov.uk/guidance/zika-virus-sample-testing-advice (accessed 25 August 2016)

Public Health England. Rash in Pregnancy. 2016c. http://www.gov.uk/government/publications/viral-rash-in-pregnancy (accessed 31 August 2016)

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist, Royal College of Midwives, Public Health England, Health Protection Scotland. Interim clinical guidelines: Zika virus infection and pregnancy - Information for healthcare professionals. 2016. http://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/news/zika-virus-update-17-june.pdf (accessed 25 August 2016)

Schuler-Faccini L, Ribeiro EM, Feitosa IM, Horovitz DD, Cavalcanti DP, Pessoa A, Doriqui MJ, Neri JI, Neto JM, Wanderley HY, Cernach M, El-Husny AS, Pone MV, Serao CL, Sanseverino MT Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65:(3)59-62 https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6503e2

Vouga M, Musso D, Van Mieghem T, Baud D CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak. Lancet. 2016; 387:(10021)843-4 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00383-4

World Health Organization. WHO Director-General summarizes the outcome of the Emergency Committee regarding clusters of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. 2016a. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/emergency-committee-zika-microcephaly/en/ (accessed 25 August 2016)

World Health Organization. Zika virus infection – United States of America. 2016b. http://www.who.int/csr/don/12-february-2016-zika-usa/en/ (accessed 25 August 2016)

World Health Organization. Zika virus, microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome situation report. 2016c. http://tinyurl.com/jjlq688 (accessed 25 August 2016)

World Health Organization. Zika virus. 2016d. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/ (accessed 25 August 2016)

World Health Organization. Interim Guidance update. Pregnancy management in the context of Zika virus infection. 2016e. http://tinyurl.com/j8v26jm (accessed on 31 August 2016)

World Health Organization. Prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. 2016f. http://tinyurl.com/j38qd7v (accessed on 19 September 2016)

What should midwives know about Zika virus infection?

02 October 2016
11 min read
Volume 24 · Issue 10

Abstract

There is currently a large-scale epidemic of Zika virus infection in the Americas. For most people, infections caused by Zika virus lead to a mild and short-lived illness, but Zika has now been confirmed as the cause of fetal microcephaly and other birth defects, and it has been linked to certain neurological disorders. This article offers some insight into Zika virus infection, management of women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, and the implications of Zika virus for practising midwives in the UK.

On 1 February 2016, the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the recent outbreak of cases of fetal microcephaly linked to Zika in South America an international public health emergency (WHO, 2016a). As it is likely that some practising midwives in the UK will encounter women who are pregnant or planning to conceive and may have been exposed to Zika, it is important for midwives to be prepared for properly assessing and informing women with the infection. This article offers some insight into Zika and addresses the known effects of Zika during pregnancy, clinical management of women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy, and the implications of Zika for practising midwives in the UK.

Zika virus disease is a mosquito-borne infection caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV was first observed in a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947, and it was found a few years later in humans, animals and mosquitoes throughout Africa and Asia. In the past 9 years, large outbreaks have been reported in Micronesia, French Polynesia and other parts of the Pacific, typically accompanied by mild illness (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2016a). In May 2015, the first case of local ZIKV transmission was reported in Brazil. Since then, ZIKV has spread rapidly across 40 countries, particularly affecting South America, Central America and the Caribbean (Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO, 2016). By October 2015, Brazil reported an association between ZIKV infection with both fetal microcephaly—small head for gestational age—and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pacific Islands and Cape Verde have also reported active ZIKV transmission, and more recently, small outbreaks have also been reported in Southeast Asia and Florida, USA (CDC, 2016a; European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2016) (Figure 1).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content

  • Monthly email newsletter