Abdul-Mumin K. Village midwives and their changing roles in Brunei Darussalam: A qualitative study. Women and Birth. 2016; 29:(5)e73-e81

Aji AS, Awg-Manan F, Abdullah YR, Kisut R, Abdul Rahman H, Abdul-Mumin K. Antenatal education for pregnant women attending maternal and child health clinics in Brunei Darussalam. Women and Birth. 2019; 32:(6)564-569

Almalik MA, Mosleh SM. Pregnant women: What do they need to know during pregnancy? A descriptive study. Women Birth. 2017; 30:(2)100-106

Ashwal E, Livne MY, Benichou JI Contemporary patterns of labor in nulliparous and multiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 222:(3)267-e1

Auxier J. The influence of environments on fear of childbirth during women's intrapartum hospital stays.Vancouver: University of British Columbia; 2017

Baxter J. Care during the latent phase of labour: supporting normal birth. Br J Midwifery. 2007; 15:(12)

Brixval SC, Axelsen SF, Thygesen LC, Due P, Koushede V. Antenatal education in small classes may increase childbirth self-efficacy. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016; 10:32-34

Cappelletti G, Nespoli A, Fumagalli S, Borrelli SE. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services. Midwifery. 2016; 34:198-204

Carlsson IM, Hallberg LR, Odberg Pettersson K. Swedish women's experiences of seeking care and being admitted during the latent phase of labour: a grounded theory study. Midwifery. 2009; 25:(2)172-180

Cutajar L, Miu M, Fleet JA, Cyna AM, Steen M. Antenatal education for childbirth: labour and birth. Eur J Midwifery. 2020; 4:(April)

Demsar K, Svetina M, Verdenik I, Tul N, Blickstein I, Velikonja VG. Tokophobia (fear of childbirth): prevalence and risk factors. J Perinatal Med. 2018; 46:(2)

Dunn CL, Pirie PL, Hellerstedt WL. The advice-giving role of female friends and relatives during pregnancy. Health Education Research. 2003; 18:(3)352-362

Gottfredsdottir H, Steingrimsdottir P, Bjornsdottir A, Guomundsdottir EY, Kristjansdottir H. Content of antenatal care: Does it prepare women for birth?. Midwifery. 2016; 39:71-77

Gross MM, Burian RA, Frömke C, Hecker H, Schippert C, Hillemanns P. Onset of labour: women's experiences and midwives' assessments in relation to first stage duration. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009; 280:(6)899-905

Hanley GE, Munro S, Greyson D Diagnosing onset of labour: a systematic review of definitions in the research literature. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016; 16

Henderson J, Redshaw M. Sociodemographic differences in women's experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study. BMJ. 2017; 7

Hong K, Hwang H, Han H Perspective on antenatal education associated with pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Women and Birth. 2021; 34:(3)219-230

Hutchison J, Mahdy H, Hutchison J. Stages of labour.Treasure Island: StatPearls Publishing; 2021

Jackson DJ, Lang JM, Ecker J, Swartz WH, Heeren T. Impact of collaborative management and early admission in labor on method of delivery. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003; 32:(2)147-157

Karabulut O, Coskuner-Potur D, Dogan-Merih Y, Mutlu C, Demirci N. Does antenatal education reduce fear of childbirth?. Int Nurs Rev. 2016; 63:(1)60-67

Kobayashi S, Hanada N, Matsuzaki M Assessment and support during early labour for improving birth outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;

Luta Q, Abdul-Mumin K, Sharbawi HR, Abdul-Rahman H, Hashim S. Usefulness of antenatal care handbook: a cross-sectional study of mother's perspective. 2021;

McInnes RJ, Aitken-Arbuckle A, Lake S, Martin CH, MacArthur J. Implementing continuity of midwife carer – just a friendly face? A realist evaluation. BMC Health Services Research. 2020; 20

Ministry of Health. Information health booklet 2016. 2017. (accessed 3 March 2022)

Ministry of Health. Information health booklet 2017. 2018. (accessed 3 March 2022)

Ministry of Health. Community health services. 2021. (accessed 3 March 2022)

Mikolajczyk RT, Zhang J, Grewal J, Chan LC, Petersen A, Gross MM. Early versus late admission to labour affects labour progression and risk of cesarean section in nulliparous women. Front Med. 2016; 3

Miller YD, Armanasco AA, McCosker L, Thompson R. Variations in outcomes for women admitted to hospital in early versus active labour: an observational study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020; 20

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intrapartum care for healthy women and babies. Clinical guideline (CG190). 2017. (accessed 3 March 2022)

Nilsson C, Hessman E, Sjoblom H Definitions, measurements and prevalence of fear of childbirth: A systematic review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018; 18

O'Connell MA, Leahy-Warren P, Kenny LC, O'Neill SM, Khashan AS. The prevalence and risk factors of fear of childbirth among pregnant women: A cross-sectional study in Ireland. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2019; 98:(8)1014-1023

Office of International Cooperation. Brunei Darussalam country report. 2008. (accessed 21 March 2022)

Palsson P, Kvist LJ, Persson EK. “I didn't know what to ask about”: first-time mothers' conceptions of prenatal preparation for the early parenthood period. J Perinatal Educ. 2018; 27:(3)

Queenita L, Abdul-Mumin K, Sharbawi R, Abdul-Rahman H, Hashim S. Usefulness of antenatal care handbook: a cross-sectional study of mother's perspective. Research Square. 2021;

Braxton Hicks contractions. 2021. (accessed 21 March 2022)

Rota A, Antollini L, Colciago E, Nespoli A, Borrelli SE, Fumagalli S. Timing of hospital admission in labour: latent versus active phase, mode of birth and intrapartum interventions. A correlational study. Women and Birth. 2018; 31:(4)313-318

Royal College of Midwives. Position statement midwifery continuity of carer (MCOC). 2018. (accessed 22 March 2022)

Sayakhot P, Carolan-Olah M. Internet use by pregnant women seeking pregnancy-related information: A systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016; 16

Tabaghdehi MH, Keramat A, Kolahdozan S, Shahhosseini Z, Moosazadeh M, Motaghi Z. Positive childbirth experience: A qualitative study. Nursing Open. 2020; 7:(4)1233-1238

Tang Y, Gao J, Sun L, Gao Y, Guo F, Chen Q. Promotion of pre-natal education courses is associated with reducing the rates of caesarean section: a case-control study. Front Public Health. 2021;

Wigert H, Nilsson C, Patel H. Women's experiences of fear of childbirth: A metasynthesis of qualitative studies. Int J Qual Stud Health Wellbeing. 2020; 15:(1)

World Health Organization. WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience: summary. 2016. (accessed 3 March 2022)

World Health Organization. WHO recommendations: intrapartum care for a positive childbirth experience: transforming care of women and babies for improved health and well-being. 2018. (accessed 3 March 2022)

Brunei: building a enshrining an absolute monarchy. semantic scholar. 2017. (accessed 3 March 2022)

Admission to delivery suites: the importance of antenatal education

02 April 2022
14 min read
Volume 30 · Issue 4


This article discusses the challenges in ensuring women have appropriate education to guide their decision on when to present to hospital during labour. Unnecessary admission to the delivery suite can cause overcrowding, which may affect the services provided to women in active labour. Pregnancy is a demanding and sometimes overwhelming experience and women's fears can be compounded if they do not know what to expect from labour. Antenatal education to inform women on the signs and symptoms of the first stage of labour, and how to recognise deviations from normal, is vital in encapsulating holistic antenatal care. Therefore, antenatal education is integral to positive pregnancy outcomes, enhancing women's ability to take control of their pregnancy by undertaking self-management at home prior to the onset of active labour and their confidence in coming to the delivery suite at the appropriate time.

In Brunei, inappropriate admission of pregnant women to delivery suites can cause overcrowding, which can affect the quality of the maternity services provided by maternal and child healthcare facilities. This article discusses the factors that can affect a woman's choice in when to present to a delivery suite and the importace of antenatal education in ensuring mothers present at the appropriate time during labour.

Brunei is a higher income nation in southeast Asia where approximately two-thirds of its population are of Malay origin (Abdul-Mumin, 2016). It has a population of 459 500 with an estimated 6000 births per year. Brunei became a member of the United Nations and World Health Organization (WHO) immediately after gaining independence from being a British protectorate in 1984 (Yusof, 2017). The improved socioeconomic status of Brunei has been linked to a reduction in maternal mortality and morbidity (Ministry of Health, 2018). The Brunei government, through the Ministry of Health (2021), offers comprehensive public medical and health services free of charge, including maternal and child healthcare facilities. There are four public hospitals in Brunei, the central referral hospital being in the capital city. The other three hospitals are purposely designated for the population in the other three districts. Maternal and child healthcare is also provided in a sophisticated private hospital equipped with modern technology in Jerudong. The primary healthcare centres that provide maternal and child healthcare services consist of 17 health centres, five travelling health clinics and two flying medical services (Ministry of Health, 2021).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month