Arshad A, Pasha W, Khattak T, Kiyani R. Impact of pregnancy induced hypertension on birth weight of newborn at term. JRMC. 2011; 15:113-115

Barbour L, Hernandez T. Maternal lipids and fetal overgrowth: making fat from fat. Clinical Therapeutics. 2018; 40:1638-1647

Bartha J, González-Bugatto F, Fernández-Macías R, González-González N, Comino-Delgado R, Hervías-Vivancos B. Metabolic syndrome in normal and complicated pregnancies. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2008; 137:178-184

Chatzi L, Plana E, Daraki V, Karakosta P, Alegkakis D, Tsatsanis C. Metabolic syndrome in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009; 170:829-836

Dong L, Liu E, Guo J, Pan L, Li B, Leng J. Relationship between maternal fasting glucose levels at 4-12 gestational weeks and offspring growth and development in early infancy. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2013; 102:210-217

Emet T, Üstüner I, Güven S, Balık G, Ural U, Tekin Y. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins during pregnancy and related pregnancy outcomes. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2013; 288:49-55

Ghosh S, Ghosh K. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Indian Medical Association. 2013; 111:330-331

Grieger J, Bianco-Miotto T, Grzeskowiak L, Leemaqz S, Poston L, McCowan L. Metabolic syndrome in pregnancy and risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a prospective cohort of nulliparous women. PLOS Med. 2018;

Himmelmann A, Svensson A, Hansson L. Relation of maternal blood pressure during pregnancy to birth weight and blood pressure in children. Hypertension in Pregnancy Offspring Study. Journal of Internal Medicine. 1994; 235:347-352

Horvath B, Bodecs T, Boncz I, Bodis J. Metabolic syndrome in normal and complicated pregnancies. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2013; 11:185-188

Hwang J, Choi H, Kim H, Jang W, Ha E, Park C. Relationship of maternal grain intake and serum triglyceride levels with infant birth weight: Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015; 69

Jin W, Lin S, Hou R, Chen X, Han T, Jin Y. Associations between maternal lipid profile and pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes: a population-based study from China. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016; 16–9

Kong L, Nilsson I, Gissler M, Lavebratt C. Associations of maternal diabetes and body mass index with offspring birth weight and prematurity. JAMA Pediatrics. 2019; 173:371-378

Lee S, Han K, Kang Y, Kim S, Cho Y, Ko K. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea: findings from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database (2009–2013). PlOS One. 2018;

Mohsenzadeh-ledari F, Taghizadeh Z, Motaghi Z, Keramat A, Moosazadeh M, Najafi A. Appropriate interventions for pregnant women with indicators of metabolic syndrome on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2019; 10

Mossayebi E, Arab Z, Rahmaniyan M, Almassinokiani F, Kabir A. Prediction of neonates' macrosomia with maternal lipid profile of healthy mothers. Pediatrics and Neonatology. 2014; 55:28-34

Mudd L, Holzman C, Evans R. Maternal mid-pregnancy lipids and birthweight. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2015; 94:852-860

Negrato C, Jovanovic L, Tambascia M, Calderon M, Geloneze B, Dias A. Mild gestational hyperglycaemia as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 2008; 24:324-30

Niyaty S, Moghaddam-Banaem L, Sourinejad H, Mokhlesi S. Are maternal metabolic syndrome and lipid profile associated with preterm delivery and preterm premature rupture of membranes?. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2020; 303:(1)113-119

O'Neill S, O'Driscoll L. Metabolic syndrome: a closer look at the growing epidemic and its associated pathologies. Obesity Reviews. 2015; 16:1-12

Ostovar R, Kiani F, Sayehmiri F, Yasemi M, Mohsenzadeh Y, Mohsenzadeh Y. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iran: a meta-analysis. Electronic Physician. 2017; 9

Ryckman K, Borowski K, Parikh N, Saftlas A. Pregnancy complications and the risk of metabolic syndrome for the offspring. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports. 2013; 7:217-223

Salim R, Hasanein J, Nachum Z, Shalev E. Anthropometric parameters in infants of gestational diabetic women with strict glycemic control. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2004; 104:1021-1024

Sauder M, Lee S, Schulze K, Christian P, Wu L, Khatry S, Leclerq S, Adhikari R, Groopman J, West K. Inflammation throughout pregnancy and fetal growth restriction in rural Nepal. Epidemiology and Infection. 2019; 30

Sivakumar S, Bhat B, Badhe B. Effect of pregnancy induced hypertension on mothers and their babies. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2007; 74:623-625–2

Sourinejad H, Banaem LM, Niyati S. The metabolic syndrome and its components in mid-pregnancy in Tehran, 2013–14. Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty. 2016; 14:465-473

Sourinejad H, Shayan A, Niyati S, Moghaddam-Banaem L. The effect of metabolic syndrome and its components in midpregnancy on neonatal outcomes. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2019; 33

Tavares HDP, Arantes M, Tavares S, Abbade J, Calderon M, Rudge M. Metabolic syndrome and pregnancy, its prevalence, obstetrical and newborns complications. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015; 5

Vrijkotte T, Algera S, Brouwer J, Eijsden MV, Twickler M. Maternal triglyceride levels during early pregnancy are associated with birth weight and postnatal growth. Journal of Pediatrics. 2011; 159:736-742

Whyte K, Kelly H, O'Dwyer V, Gibbs M, O'Higgins A, Turner M. Offspring birth weight and maternal fasting lipids in women screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2013; 170:67-70

Yu Z, Han S, Zhu J, Sun X, Ji C, Guo X. Pre-pregnancy body mass index in relation to infant birth weight and offspring overweight/obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS One. 2013; 8

Zhao R, Xu L, Wu M, Huang S, Cao X. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain influence birth weight. Women Birth. 2018; 31:20-25

Gestational metabolic syndrome and neonatal anthropometric indices: a prospective cohort study

02 July 2021
Volume 29 · Issue 7


Background and aim

There is limited knowledge about the effect of maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the association between MetS in the first trimester of pregnancy with weight and height of the newborn.


This prospective cohort study was conducted on 455 pregnant women in Tehran during their first trimester of pregnancy. MetS was defined as the coexistence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting blood sugar (FBS) level ≥92 mg/dl, blood pressure ≥130.85 mm/hg, triglyceride ≥150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein ≤50 mg/dl, and body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. All participants were followed up to childbirth. After birth, the baby's weight and height data were collected from the birth certificate.


Linear regression analysis showed FBS (ß: 0.100, p-value: 0.038), BMI (ß: 0.139, p-value: 0.004), and MetS (ß: -0.122, p-value: 0.015) were significantly associated with birth weight but no statistically significant results were found for birth height.


MetS and some of its components in pregnancy can affect birth weight of neonates.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a combination of central abdominal (visceral) obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension (Mohsenzadeh-Ledari et al, 2019). This syndrome is a cluster of physiological abnormalities that accelerate the risk of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Niyaty et al, 2020), some cancers, and chronic kidney disease in the adult population (Grieger et al, 2018).

The prevalence of MetS has significantly increased throughout the world over the recent years (Lee et al, 2018). Based on the results of a meta-analysis study in Iran, the prevalence of MetS was 25% its prevalence in men (26.9%) was lower than in women (35.7%) (Ostovar et al, 2017). The prevalence of MetS has increased because of the increased prevalence of obesity (O'Neill and O'Driscoll, 2015).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month