Gestational metabolic syndrome and neonatal anthropometric indices: a prospective cohort study
Background and aim
There is limited knowledge about the effect of maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the association between MetS in the first trimester of pregnancy with weight and height of the newborn.
This prospective cohort study was conducted on 455 pregnant women in Tehran during their first trimester of pregnancy. MetS was defined as the coexistence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting blood sugar (FBS) level ≥92 mg/dl, blood pressure ≥130.85 mm/hg, triglyceride ≥150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein ≤50 mg/dl, and body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. All participants were followed up to childbirth. After birth, the baby's weight and height data were collected from the birth certificate.
Linear regression analysis showed FBS (ß: 0.100, p-value: 0.038), BMI (ß: 0.139, p-value: 0.004), and MetS (ß: -0.122, p-value: 0.015) were significantly associated with birth weight but no statistically significant results were found for birth height.
MetS and some of its components in pregnancy can affect birth weight of neonates.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a combination of central abdominal (visceral) obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension (Mohsenzadeh-Ledari et al, 2019). This syndrome is a cluster of physiological abnormalities that accelerate the risk of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Niyaty et al, 2020), some cancers, and chronic kidney disease in the adult population (Grieger et al, 2018).
The prevalence of MetS has significantly increased throughout the world over the recent years (Lee et al, 2018). Based on the results of a meta-analysis study in Iran, the prevalence of MetS was 25% its prevalence in men (26.9%) was lower than in women (35.7%) (Ostovar et al, 2017). The prevalence of MetS has increased because of the increased prevalence of obesity (O'Neill and O'Driscoll, 2015).
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