Alinier G, Hunt B, Gordon R, Harwood C Effectiveness of intermediate-fidelity simulation training technology in undergraduate nursing education. J Adv Nurs. 2006; 54:(3)359-369

Arafeh JMR, Hansen SS, Nichols A Debriefing in simulated-based learning: facilitating a reflective discussion. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2010; 24:(4)302-309

Beckett VA, Knight M, Sharpe P The CAPS Study: incidence, management and outcomes of cardiac arrest in pregnancy in the UK: a prospective, descriptive study. BJOG. 2017; 124:(9)1374-1381

Bogossian F, McKenna L, Cooper S, Fox-Young S, Brady S, Hall H Simulated learning environments: midwifery curriculum.Adelaide: Health Workforce Australia; 2010

Bogossian F, Cooper S, Cant R Undergraduate nursing students' performance in recognising and responding to sudden patient deterioration in high psychological fidelity simulated environments: an Australian multi-centre study. Nurse Educ Today. 2014; 34:(5)691-696

Bond WF, Spillane L The use of simulation for emergency medicine resident assessment. Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9:(11)1295-1299

Brady S, Bogossian F, Gibbons K The effectiveness of varied levels of simulation fidelity on integrated performance of technical skills in midwifery students—A randomised intervention trial. Nurse Educ Today. 2015; 35:(3)524-529

Burke H, Mancuso L Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education. J Nurs Educ. 2012; 51:(10)543-548

Cato M, Gordon MA Debriefing in Simulation Using the Clinical Judgment Model. Clin Simul Nurs. 2009; 5:(3)

Coffey F Learning by simulation – is it a useful tool for midwifery education?. New Zealand College of Midwives Journal. 2015; 51:30-6

Cooper S, Beauchamp A, Bogossian F Managing patient deterioration: a protocol for enhancing undergraduate nursing students' competence through web-based simulation and feedback techniques. BMC Nurs. 2012; 11:(1)

Deegan M, Terry L Student midwives' perceptions of real-time simulation: A qualitative phenomenological study. Br J Midwifery. 2013; 21:(8)590-598

Dow A Simulation-based learning: a case study, part 2. Br J Midwifery. 2012; 20:(8)582-586

Endacott R, Bogossian F, Cooper S Leadership and teamwork in medical emergencies: performance of nursing students and registered nurses in simulated patient scenarios. J Clin Nurs. 2015; 24:(1-2)90-100

Feingold CE, Calaluce M, Kallen MA Computerized patient model and simulated clinical experiences: evaluation with baccalaureate nursing students. J Nurs Educ. 2004; 43:(4)156-63

Freeth D, Ayida G, Berridge EJ Multidisciplinary obstetric simulated emergency scenarios (MOSES): promoting patient safety in obstetrics with teamwork-focused interprofessional simulations. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2009; 29:(2)98-104

Fox-Young S, Brady S, Brealey W The perspectives of Australian midwifery academics on barriers and enablers for simulation in midwifery education in Australia: A focus group study. Midwifery. 2012; 28:(4)495-501

Hertel JP, Millis BJ Using simulations to promote learning in higher education: An introduction.Sterling (VA): Stylus; 2002

Hughes C, Anderson G, Patterson D, O'Prey M Introducing an obstetric emergency training strategy into a simulated environment. Br J Midwifery. 2014; 22:(3)201-207

Kable AK, Levett-Jones TL, Arthur C A cross-national study to objectively evaluate the quality of diverse simulation approaches for undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Educ Pract. 2018; 28:(28)248-256

Kolb DA Experiential Learning. Experience as the Source of Learning and Development.Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall; 1984

Jeffries PR A framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating simulations used as teaching strategies in nursing. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2005; 26:(2)96-103

Lathrop A, Winningham B, VandeVusse L Simulation-based learning for midwives: background and pilot implementation. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007; 52:(5)492-498

Loureiro I, Sherriff N, Davies JK Developing public health competencies through building a problem-based learning project. J Public Health. 2009:(17)

Manktelow BN, Smith LK, Prunet C on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK collaboration. MBRRACE-UK Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report: Perinatal Deaths for Births from January to December 2015.Leicester: Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester; 2017

Better Births: Improving Outcomes of Maternity Services in England.London: NHS England; 2016

Nehring WM, Lashley F High Fidelity Patient Simulation in Nursing Education.Burlington (MA): Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2010

Norman G, Dore K, Grierson L The minimal relationship between simulation fidelity and transfer of learning. Med Educ. 2012; 46:(7)636-647

Standards for pre-registration midwifery education.London: NMC; 2009

Realising professionalism: Standards for education and training. Part 3: Standards for pre-registration nursing programmes.London: NMC; 2018a

Nursing and Midwifery Council. New NMC standards shape the future of nursing for next generation. 2018b. (accessed 23 January 2019)

Managing Obstetric Emergencies and Trauma, 3rd edn. In: Paterson-Brown S, Howell C (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2014

, 7th edn. London: Resuscitation Council (UK); 2016

Rhodes ML, Curran C Use of the human patient simulator to teach clinical judgment skills in a baccalaureate nursing program. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 2005; 23:(5)256-262

Seropian MA, Brown K, Gavilanes JS, Driggers B Simulation: not just a manikin. J Nurs Educ. 2004; 43:(4)164-169

Sears K, Goldsworthy S, Goodman WM The relationship between simulation in nursing education and medication safety. J Nurs Educ. 2010; 49:(1)52-55

Schon DA The Reflective Practitioner. How Professionals Think in Action.New York (NY): Basic Books; 1983

Smith R, Gray J, Raymond J, Catling-Paull C, Homer CSE Simulated learning activities: improving midwifery students understanding of reflective practice. Clin Simul Nurs. 2012; 8:(9)e451-e457

Thompson S, Neal S, Clark V Clinical risk management in obstetrics: eclampsia drills. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13:(2)127-9

Tyer-Viola L, Zulu B, Maimbolwa M, Guarino A Evaluation of the use of simulation with student midwives in Zambia. Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh. 2012; 9

Valler-Jones T, Meechan R, Jones H Simulated practice—a panacea for health education?. Br J Nurs. 2011; 20:(10)628-31

Van Wagner V Using simple simulation to teach midwifery skills. Canadian Journal of Midwifery Research and Practice. 2012; 11:(1)

Vermeulen J, Beeckman K, De Clercq G Inter-professional perinatal simulation training: a valuable educational model to improve competencies amongst student midwives in Brussels, Belgium. Midwifery. 2016; 33:49-51

Wayne DB, Didwania A, Feinglass J, Fudala MJ, Barsuk JH, McGaghie WC Simulation-based education improves quality of care during cardiac arrest team responses at an academic teaching hospital: a case-control study. Chest. 2008; 133:(1)56-61

Ye XM, Gbadamosi J, Bayer AS Improving clinical outcomes and communication through multidisciplinary obstetric and midwifery simulation. BJOG. 2018; 125:(S1)

Zook SS, Hulton LJ, Dudding CC, Stewart AL, Graham AC Scaffolding interprofessional education: unfolding case studies, virtual world simulations, and patient-centred care. Nurse Educ. 2018; 43:(2)87-91

Use of technology in simulation training in midwifery

02 February 2019
7 min read
Volume 27 · Issue 2


Simulation and skills training support the development of midwifery competencies. Midwives will already be familiar with torsos, dolls and pelvises to simulate abdominal palpations, neonatal resuscitation and mechanisms of labour. The use of high-fidelity simulation through technologically advanced manikins in skills training for the midwifery students has also been developed, and it is hoped that this will increase students' performance in effectively managing maternal resuscitation and other obstetric emergencies after simulation in clinical labs. Simulation has great benefits, such as increasing the interaction between educators and students and using experiential learning, or learning through doing and reflecting. Skill performance, critical thinking, and self-confidence can all be assessed and evaluated during the simulation experience.

Midwifery education is facing many challenges in finding clinical placements to meet curriculum requirements to educate and prepare midwifery students in specialised areas (Brady et al, 2015). Clinical simulation is an event whereby students are immersed into a realistic clinical environment or situation, and it is now regular practice in midwifery education programmes (Norman et al, 2012), as a result of limited clinical sites in specialty areas of practice for students (Jeffries, 2005; Nehring, 2010). Recently updated standards from the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2018a) emphasise that the technology incorporated within simulation should be used as effectively as possible to enable learning. The new standards, which are due to be implemented in September 2020, will be like those of the nursing pre-registration programmes in relation to simulation and clinical skills, in that enhanced technology must be incorporated in simulation-based learning to support teaching and assessment. As Jackie Smith, former NMC Chief Executive and registrar, said:

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content

  • Monthly email newsletter