References

Bates B, Lennox A, Prentice A, Bates C, Swan GLondon: Public Health England; 2012

Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013

Buttriss J, Stanner S, Sander TAB Putting the Science into Practice: Public Health Implications.Oxford: Wiley Blackwell; 2013

Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2010. http://www.hqip.org.uk/assets/NCAPOP-Library/CMACE-Reports/15.-March-2010-Management-of-Women-with-Obesity-in-Pregnancy-Guidance.pdf (accessed 28 August 2015)

Crawley HLondon: First Steps Nutrition Trust; 2014

Datta S, Alfaham M, Davies DP, Dunstan F, Woodhead S, Evans J, Richards B Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women from a non-European ethnic minority population an interventional study. BJOG. 2002; 109:(8)905-8

2012. http://tinyurl.com/pwaqxt2 (accessed 28 August 2015)

London: The Stationery Office; 1991

Gov.uk. Healthy Start. 2015. http://www.gov.uk/healthy-start (accessed 1 September 2015)

Haggarty P, Campbell DM, Knox S, Horgan GW, Hoad G, Boulton E, McNeill G, Wallace AM Vitamin D in pregnancy at high latitude in Scotland. Br J Nutr. 2013; 109:(5)898-905 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512002255

Hausner H, Bredie WL, Mølgaard C, Petersen MA, Møller P Differential transfer of dietary flavour compounds into human breastmilk. Physiol Behav. 2008; 95:(1–2)118-24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.05.007

Henderson L, Irving K, Gregory J, Bates C, Prentice A, Perks J, Swan G, Farron MLondon: The Stationery Office; 2003

Kennedy D, Koren G Identifying women who might benefit from higher doses of folic acid in pregnancy. Can Fam Physician. 2012; 58:(4)394-7

Lanham-New SA, Buttriss JL, Miles LM Proceedings of the Rank Forum on Vitamin D. Br J Nutr. 2011; 105:(1)144-56 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510002576

Lennox AM, Buttriss JB, Gibson-Moore HJ Maternal nutrition and infant feeding: Current practice and recommendations.Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013

McAree T, Jacobs B, Manickavasagar T, Sivalokanathan S, Brennan L, Bassett P, Rainbow S, Blair M Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy – still a public health issue. Matern Child Nutr. 2013; 9:(1)23-30 https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12014

McNulty B, Pentieva K, Marshall B, Ward M, Molloy AM, Scott JM, McNulty H Women's compliance with current folic acid recommendations and achievement of optimal vitamin status for preventing neural tube defects. Hum Reprod. 2011; 26:(6)1530-6 https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/der078

Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Lancet. 1991; 338:(8760)131-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)90133-A

NHS Choices. Meat in your diet. 2015a. http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/meat.aspx (accessed 28 August 2015)

NHS Choices. Fish in pregnancy. 2015b. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/foods-to-avoid-pregnant.aspx#fish (accessed 8 September 2015)

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. The influence of maternal, fetal and child nutrition on the development of chronic disease in later life. 2013. http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/sacn_early_nutrition_final_report_20_6_11.pdf (accessed 28 August 2015)

Vegan Society. VEG1 Orange 90s. 2015. http://www.vegansociety.com/shop/supplements/veg1-orange-90s (accessed 28 August 2015)

Williamson C, Wyness L Nutritional requirements in pregnancy and use of dietary supplements. Community Prac. 2013; 86:(8)44-7

Vitamin supplementation and nutrition during pregnancy and breastfeeding

02 October 2015
12 min read
Volume 23 · Issue 10

Abstract

A healthy diet around pregnancy and breastfeeding, which provides adequate nutrients for the mother and her developing baby, is important to ensure optimal health for both. Suboptimal nutrient intakes—or intakes that are too high—can have a detrimental impact on the mother and her infant in both the short and long term. Even with a healthy diet, supplementation of some vitamins is recommended to meet requirements. This article discusses key vitamins required around the time of pregnancy and during breastfeeding—folate and vitamins A, B and D—exploring how adequate intake can be ensured.

The developing baby in the womb is completely dependent on its mother for its nutrient supply, so the quality of the maternal diet is extremely important. During pregnancy, increased intake is required of several nutrients, such as vitamins A, B1, B2, C and D and folate (Table 1). Women's absorption of certain nutrients increases during pregnancy, which can help achieve adequate nutrient levels (Department of Health (DH), 1991). Despite this, the dietary intake and/or stores of key nutrients (e.g. vitamin D) are often found to be low in pregnant women (McAree et al, 2013). Supplements of folic acid and vitamin D are recommended around pregnancy, as diet alone is unlikely to be able to provide a sufficient supply (DH, 1991).

LRNI–lower reference nutrient intake

Bates et al, 2014;

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content

  • Monthly email newsletter