References

Bloom BS. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Volume 1: Cognitive Domain.New York: McKay; 1956

Brady S, BogossianMell F., Gibbons K. The effectiveness of varied levels of simulation fidelity on integrated performance of technical skills in midwifery students-A randomised intervention trial. Nurse Education Today. 2015; 35:(3)524-529 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2014.11.005

Braun V, Clarke V. Successful Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for Beginners.London: Sage; 2013

Carminati L. Generalizability in Qualitative Research: A Tale of Two Traditions. Qualitative Health Research. 2018; 28:(13)2094-2101 https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732318788379

Chitongo S, Suthers F. Use of technology in simulation training in midwifery. British Journal of Midwifery. 2019; 27:(2)85-89 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2019.27.2.85

Cant RP, Cooper SJ. Use of simulation-based learning in undergraduate nurse education: An umbrella systematic review. Nurse Education Today. 2016; 49:63-71 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.11.015

Cooper S, Cant R, Porter J Simulation based learning in midwifery education: a systematic review. Women Birth. 2012; 25:(2)64-78 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2011.03.004

Council of Deans of Health. educating the future midwife: discussion paper on the key future outcomes for registered midwife education. 2017. https://councilofdeans.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Educating-the-Future-Midwife-FINAL-Nov-17.pdf (accessed 12 October 2021)

Deegan M, Terry L. Student midwives' perceptions of real-time simulation: A qualitative phenomenological study. British Journal of Midwifery. 2013; 21:(8)590-598 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2013.21.8.590

Department of Health. Preparation for birth and beyond. A resource pack for leaders of community groups and activities. 2011. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/215386/dh_134728.pdf (accessed 12 August 2019)

Doleman G, Geraghty S, DeLeo A. Midwifery student's perceptions of caring for substance-using pregnant women. Nurse Education Today. 2019; 76:26-30

Doolen J, Mariani B, Atz T High-fidelity simulation in undergraduate nursing education: a review of simulation reviews. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2016; 12:(7)290-302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2016.01.009

Dow A. Simulation-based learning: a case study, part 2. British Journal of Midwifery. 2012; 20:(8)582-586 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2012.20.8.582

Dreifuerst KT. Using debriefing for meaningful learning to foster development of clinical reasoning in simulation. Journal of Nurse Education. 2012; 51:(6)326-333

Durham CF, Alden KR. Integrating quality and safety competencies in simulation. In: Sherwood G, Barnsteiner J. (Eds). London: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2012

Undergraduate Nursing students' satisfaction with low- and high-fidelity simulation. 2015. https://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/bitstream/handle/1993/31064/Fatane_Sumayah.pdf (accessed 27 October 2021)

Forray A. Substance use during pregnancy. F1000Research. 2016; 5 https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.7645.1

Fleisher S. Alcohol and pregnancy: advising women not to take risks. British Journal of Midwifery. 2011; 19:(6)396-397

Geraghty S, Doleman G, De Leo A. Midwives' attitudes towards pregnant women using substances: informing a care pathway. Women Birth. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2018.09.007

Guhde J. Nursing students' perceptions of the effect on critical thinking, assessment, and learner satisfaction in simple versus complex high-fidelity simulation scenarios. Journal of Nursing Education. 2011; 50:(2)73-78 https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20101130-03

Gundry R, Siassokos D, Crofts JF, Draycott TJ. Simulation training for obstetric procedures and emergencies. Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review. 2010; 21:(4)323-345 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0965539510000124

Hall J, van Teijlingen E. A qualitative study of an integrated maternity, drugs and social care service for drug-using women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2006; https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-6-19

Howlett H, Mackenzie S, Strehle E-M, Rankin J, Gray WK. A survey of health care professionals' knowledge and experience of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder and alcohol use in pregnancy.: Clinical Medicine Insights: Reproductive Health; 2019 https://doi.org/10.1177/1179558119838872

James A, Cooper S, Stenhouse E, Endacott R. What factors influence midwives to provide obstetric high dependency care on the delivery suite or request care be escalated away from the obstetric unit? Findings of a focus group study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019; 19 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2487-0

Joho AA, Kibusi S, Mwampagatwa I. The impact of low fidelity simulation on nurse competence in active management of third stage of labor: an intervention study in primary health care settings in Tanzania. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2021; 56:10-21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2021.03.009

Kelly MA, Hager P, Gallagher R. What matters most? students' rankings of simulation components that contribute to clinical judgement. Journal of Nursing Education. 2014; 53:(2)97-101 https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20140122-08

Kerker B, Horwitz S, Leventhal J. Patients' characteristics and providers attitudes: predictors of screening pregnant women for illicit substance use. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2004; 28:209-233

Kolb DA. Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1984

Lendahls L, Oscarsson MG. Midwifery students' experiences of simulation-and skills training. Nurse Education Today. 2017; 50:12-16 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.12.005

Magdula RM, Groshkova T, Mayet S Illicit drug use in pregnancy: effects and management. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 6:(2)179-192 https://doi.org/10.1586/eog.10.54

McNeill J, Doran J, Lynn F, Anderson G, Alderdice F. Public health education for midwives and midwifery students: a mixed methods study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012; 12 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-12-142

McLellan JM, O'Carroll RE, Cheyne H, Dombrowski SU. Investigating midwives' barriers and facilitators to multiple health promotion practice behaviours: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework. Implementation Sci. 2019; 14 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-019-0913-3

Meller G. A typology of simulators for medical education. Journal of Digital Imaging. 1997; 10:194-196

Miles M, Francis K, Chapman Y, Taylor BM. Midwives experiences of establishing partnerships: Working with pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Midwifery. 2013; 30:(2014)1082-1087

Mora-Ríos J, Ortega-Ortega M, Medina-Mora ME. Addiction-related stigma and discrimination: a qualitative study in treatment centers in Mexico City. Subst. Use Misuse. 2017; 52:(5)594-603 https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1245744

Ntlokonkulu ZB, Rala NM, Goon DT. Medium-fidelity simulation in clinical readiness: a phenomenological study of student midwives concerning teamwork. BMC Nursing. 2018; 17 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-018-0303-1

Nursing and Midwifery Council. Standards of proficiency for midwives. 2019a. https://www.nmc.org.uk/standards/standards-for-midwives/standards-of-proficiency-for-midwives/ (accessed 12 February 2021)

Nursing and Midwifery Council. Part 3: Standards for pre-registration midwifery programmes. 2019b. https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/standards/standards-for-pre-registration-midwifery-programmes.pdf (accessed 22 November 2019)

Power A, Cole M. Active blended learning for clinical skills acquisition: innovation to meet professional expectations. British Journal of Midwifery. 2017; 25:(10)668-670 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2017.25.10.668

Radcliffe P. Substance-misusing women: Stigma in the maternity setting. British Journal of Midwifery. 2011; 19:(8)497-506 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2011.19.8.497

Stepping up to public health: A new maternity model for women and families, midwives and maternity support workers.London: Royal College of Midwives; 2017

Use of simulated learning environments in nursing curricula. http://www.oupcanada.com/catalog/9780199205851.html (accessed 17 October 2021)

Alcohol guidelines for pregnant women barriers and enablers for midwives to deliver advice. 2019. http://www.ias.org.uk/uploads/pdf/IAS%20reports/rp37092019.pdf (accessed 10 January 2020)

Stone R. Pregnant women and substance use: fear, stigma, and barriers to care. Health & Justice. 2015; 3 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40352-015-0015-5

Vermeulen J, Beeckman K, De Clercq G, Vandelannoote I, Gucciardo L, Laubach M. Inter-professional perinatal simulation training: a valuable educational model to improve competencies amongst student midwives in Brussels, Belgium. Midwifery. 2016; 33:49-51 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2015.11.020

Way S, Scammell J. Humanising midwifery care. The Practising Midwife. 2016; 19:(3)27-29

Winstone A-M, Verity C. Antenatal alcohol exposure: An East Anglian study of midwives' knowledge and practice. British Journal of Midwifery. 2015; 23:(3)180-186

Yuill L. Simulation in midwifery education: Not just a passing trend. British Journal of Midwifery. 2017; 25:(3)142-143 https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2017.25.3.142

Zigmont JJ, Kappus LJ, Sudikoff SN. Theoretical foundations of learning through simulation. Semin Perinatol. 2011; 35:(2)47-51 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2011.01.002

Enhancing undergraduate midwifery: using drug and alcohol baby simulators in education

02 November 2021
15 min read
Volume 29 · Issue 11
Figure 1. Left: static low fidelity fetal alcohol syndrome simulator. Middle: medium fidelity drug affected simulator. Right: reverse view of the medium fidelity drug affected simulator on–off switch
Figure 1. Left: static low fidelity fetal alcohol syndrome simulator. Middle: medium fidelity drug affected simulator. Right: reverse view of the medium fidelity drug affected simulator on–off switch

Abstract

Background

In the UK, simulation in midwifery education mostly relates to developing clinical skills such as managing obstetric emergencies. However, there is minimal use of neonate simulators in educating student midwives on the impact of teratogens on fetal development. There is also limited research on using neonatal simulators as a creative pedagogical tool in undergraduate midwifery education.

Objectives

The two main objectives of this study were to ascertain whether students could recognise the physical impact of teratogens in the early postnatal period while interacting with simulators and to explore whether midwifery students understood their role as future midwives when working with pregnant women who may be misusing substances.

Methods

This qualitative research involved Level 4 student midwives from south England. A taught session on protecting the unborn environment was provided and students were tasked to interact with low fidelity fetal alcohol syndrome simulators and medium fidelity drug affected simulators. Student responses to group activities, such as interacting with the simulators and considering their role as future midwives in educating pregnant women about the impact of teratogens on a fetus and newborn baby, were collected.

Results

The use of the simulators was a useful pedagogical tool for enhancing student knowledge around teratogenesis and fetal impact.

Conclusions

Neonatal simulators can be used to engage undergraduate midwifery students and enhance their learning and knowledge.

Pregnancy can cause women to change their patterns of alcohol and substance use (Stone, 2015; Forray, 2016) and it is likely that the advice and support of midwives will have an impact on women's understanding in avoiding risk (Fleisher, 2011; Schölin et al, 2019). This advice should be up-to-date, consistent, factual and non-judgemental to encourage women who are misusing substances to successfully engage with maternity services (Radcliffe, 2011). Midwives in the UK have reported wanting more support and education on the impact of teratogens on fetal development (Winstone and Verity, 2015) and Schölin et al (2019) reported that 69% of midwives in the UK received fewer than 4 hours of alcohol training pre-qualification, 19% had received no training and only two-thirds of midwives provided information about the effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy to pregnant women. A similar picture emerges for illicit drug use during pregnancy (Magdula et al, 2011; Mora-Ríos et al, 2017).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month