References

Barnett R Critical professionalism in an age of super-complexity. In: Cunningham B London: Institute of Education; 2008

Barrows HS Problem based learning in medicine and beyond. In: Wilkerson L, Gijselaers WH San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1996

Benson PLondon: Longman; 2001

Cooper S, Porter J, Peach L Measuring situation awareness in emergency settings: a systematic review of tools and outcomes. Open Access Maternity Medicine. 2014; 6:1-7

Costello J, Haggart M The nature of nursing: can we teach students how to care?. CARE. 2008; 2:41-55

Cummings J Compassion in Practice: our culture of compassionate care NHS England.London: DH; 2012

Department of Health. Compassion in Practice: Nursing, Midwifery and Care Staff Our Vision and Strategy. 2012. http://tiny-url.com/c5lc4n2 (accessed 8 April 2015)

Egan G, 10th edn. Stamford CT: Cengage Learning; 2013

Freshwater DMaidenhead: Open University Press; 2003

Gruppen L, Mangrulkar R, Kolas J Competency based education in the health professions: Implications for improving global health. Human Resources for Health. 2012; (10)

Haith-Cooper M, MacVane Phipps F, Ball D, Pansini-Murrell J Problem based learning in a woman-centred midwifery curriculum. In: Conway J, Williams A Callaghan NSW: Australian Problem Based Learning Network; 1999

Haith-Cooper M An exploration of tutors' experiences of facilitating problem based learning. Part 2-implictions for the facilitation of problem based learning. Nurse Education Today. 2003; 23:(1)63-75

Henshaw AM, Clark D, Long AF Midwives' and supervisors of midwives' perceptions of statutory supervision of midwifery within the United Kingdom: a systematic review. Midwifery. 2013; 29:(1)75-85

Hmelo-Silver CE Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn?. Educational Psychology Review. 2004; 16:(3)235-66

King S Changing to PBL: factoring in the emotion of change. In: Conway J, Williams A Callaghan NSW: Australian Problem Based Learning Network; 1999

MacVane Phipps F Evidence based practice and problem based learning: a natural alliance?. In: Spiby H, Munro J Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010

Neville AJ Problem-based learning and medical education forty years on: a review of its effects on knowledge and clinical performance. Medical Principles and Practice. 2009; 18:(1)1-9

, 2nd ed.. London: NMC; 2008

London: NMC; 2010

Pansini-Murrell J Incorporating problem-based learning: striving towards women-centred care. BJM. 1996; 4:(9)479-82

Price BBasingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2003

Rogers CRNew York: Houghton Miflin; 1980

Scarnati JT Beyond technical competence: learning to listen. Career Development International. 1998; 3:(2)79-81

Salovey P, Mayer JAmityville NY: Baywood Publishing; 1990

Shrewsbury D, Mohanna K Influencing medical professionalism: innate, taught or caught?. Education for Primary Care. 2010; 21:199-202

Sloan G, Watson H John Heron's six-category intervention analysis: towards understanding interpersonal relations and progressing the delivery of clinical supervision for mental health nursing in the United Kingdom. J Adv Nurs. 2001; 36:(2)206-14

London: UKCC; 1999

Embedding the 6 Cs: Problem-based learning the Bradford way

02 May 2015
12 min read
Volume 23 · Issue 5

Abstract

This discussion paper examines the 6 Cs of good health care practice, suggesting that by using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, midwifery education can assist student midwives in developing a wide variety of essential skills from competence to compassion, communication to courage and caring to commitment. Starting with a brief discourse on the philosophical and educational basis for PBL along with an explanation of the process, the paper proceeds to examine each component of the 6 Cs, exploring in some detail how these relate to a PBL midwifery curriculum.

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational strategy that has been used in medical and other health-care education since its development at McMaster University in the 1970s (Barrows, 1996). PBL facilitates the development of professional competencies required by health care practitioners (Neville, 2009) while developing the ability to communicate effectively within a group, thus equipping student midwives for practice within a multidisciplinary environment (MacVane Phipps, 2010).

The same educational theory that underpins PBL suggests that the creation of student-centred, rather than instructor-led learning increases participants' skills in communication, teamworking and critical analysis (Benson, 2001). This paper proposes that PBL, particularly the model used in midwifery education at the University of Bradford, contributes to safe practice by encouraging a holistic understanding of care within a woman-centred framework (Haith-Cooper et al, 1999). This approach facilitates the development of the 6 Cs recommended by the Chief Nursing Officer in response to the Francis report (Cummings, 2012); therefore, compassion, communication, commitment, courage, care and competence are all facilitated by educating midwives through the medium of PBL, using the Bradford model.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Midwifery and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for midwives. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to our clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month