Antenatal care in Indonesia: a nationwide study
Antenatal care is important for screening, monitoring and management of pregnancy risks. This study analysed determinants of antenatal care in Indonesia among women aged 18–24 years and older than 30 years, who are at greater risk of pregnancy and birth complications.
This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 4338 women in the 2017 Indonesian demographic health survey. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to explore the effects of individual, partner and social factors on antenatal care.
Antenatal care attendance was associated with a younger age at first birth (adjusted odds ratio: 1.49; P<0.001), health insurance (adjusted odds ratio: 1.54; P=0.004) and the middle wealth quintile (adjusted odds ratio: 1.78; P=0.002).
Collaboration is needed to increase awareness of complications and the importance of antenatal care.
One of the targets of the sustainable development goals is to reduce maternal mortality to less than 70 per 100 000 live births and neonatal mortality to less than 12 per 1000 live births by 2030 through optimisation of antenatal care (Lattof et al, 2020). Antenatal care includes screening for complications during early pregnancy to reduce morbidity and mortality (Moller et al, 2017). Mothers' and babies' quality of life can be optimised by integrating antenatal care services to prevent, detect and treat complications during pregnancy. In addition, antenatal care provides holistic care for and evaluation of the mother's and baby's health status, as well as lifestyle risks specific to pregnant women (World Health Organization (WHO), 2014).
Globally, high rates of maternal mortality and child health problems can be attributed to low antenatal care attendance (Barreix et al, 2020). Existing data on low- and middle-income countries show an increase in newborn mortality among women younger than 24 years old and those over 30 years old (Wu et al, 2021). Women aged 18–24 years have a higher risk of mortality during pregnancy as a result of immature reproductive organs, unstable psychological needs and a lack of experience (Peng et al, 2020; Akseer et al, 2022). Similarly, becoming pregnant at 30 or more years old carries greater risks. Thus, those aged 16–24 years and those older than 30 years are especially likely to benefit from an antenatal care programme.
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